Cryopreservation of Humulus lupulus L. (Hop)

  • M. A. Revilla
  • D. Martínez
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 50)


The cultivated hop (Humulus lupulus, Cannabinaceae) is a hardy herbaceous climbing plant that is indigenous in the northern hemisphere above 32° latitude. Germany, the USA, China and the Czech Republic are the main producer countries. The Spanish production represents around 5% of the total production of the European Union, having the third place in importance among the producing member countries behind Germany and the United Kingdom.


Cold Acclimation Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult Direct Immersion Dehydration Period Vitrification Procedure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams AN (1975) Elimination of viruses from the hop (Humulus lupulus) by heat therapy and meristem culture. J Hortic Sci 50: 151–160Google Scholar
  2. Arora R, Wisniewki ME (1994) Cold acclimation in genetically related (sibling) deciduous and evergreen peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch ). Plant Physiol 105: 95–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bachiri Y, Gazeau C, Hansz J, Morisset C, Dereuddre J (1995) Successful cryopreservation of suspension cells by encapsulation-dehydration. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 43: 241–248Google Scholar
  4. Benson EE, Reed BM, Brennan RM, Clacher KA, Ross DA (1996) Use of thermal analysis in the evaluation of cryopreservation protocols for Ribes nigrum L. germplasm. Cryo Lett 17: 347–362Google Scholar
  5. Brady JL, Scott NS, Thomas MR (1996) DNA typing of hops (Humulus lupulus) through application of RAPD and microsatellite marker sequences converted to sequence tagged sites ( STS ). Euphytica 91: 277–284Google Scholar
  6. Daie J, Campbell WF (1981) Response of tomato plants to stressful temperatures. Plant Physiol 67: 26–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dereuddre J (1992) Cryopreservation of in vitro cultures of plant cells and organs by vitrification and dehydration. In: Dattée Y, Dumas C, Gallais A (eds) Reproductive biology and plant breeding. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dereuddre J, Scottez C, Arnaud Y, Duron M (1990) Résistance d’apex axillaires de poirer (Pyrus communis L.) à une déshydratation puis à une congélation dans l’azote liquide: effet d’un traitement au froid des vitroplants. CR Acad Sci Paris 310 (Ser III): 317–323Google Scholar
  9. Dereuddre J, Hassen N, Blandin S, Kaminski M (1991) Resistance of alginate-coated somatic embryos of carrot (Daucus carota L.) to desiccation and freezing in liquid nitrogen. 2. Thermal analysis. Cryo Lett 12: 135–148Google Scholar
  10. Dumet D, Engelmann F, Chanbrillange N, Dereuddre J (1993) Importance of sucrose for the acquisition of tolerance to desiccation and cryopreservation of oil palm somatic embryos. Cryo Lett 14: 243–250Google Scholar
  11. Fric V, Krofta K, Svoboda P, Kopecky J (1997) The evaluation of the virus-free hop quality after five years growing in the Czech Republic. Rostlinna Vyroba 43: 307–314Google Scholar
  12. Fukai S, Togashi M, Goi M (1994) Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown Dianthus by encapsulation-dehydration. Tech Bull Fac Agric Kagawa Univ 46: 101–107Google Scholar
  13. Gonzalez-Arnao MT, Moreira T, Urra C (1996) Importance of pregrowth with sucrose and vitrification for the cryopreservation of sugarcane apices using encapsulation-dehydration. Cryo Lett 117: 141–148Google Scholar
  14. Haunold A (1981) Hop production, breeding and variety development in various countries. J Am Soc Brew Chem 39: 27–34Google Scholar
  15. Heale JB, Legg T, Connell S (1989) Humulus lupulus L. (hop): in vitro culture; attempted production of bittering components and novel disease resistance. In: Bajaj YPS (ed) Biotechnology in agriculture and forestry, vol 7. Medicinal and aromatic plants II. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 264–285Google Scholar
  16. Kohmura H, Ikeda Y, Sakai A (1994) Cryopreservation of apical meristems of Japanese shallot (Allium wakegi A.) by vitrification and subsequent high plant regeneration. Cryo Lett 15: 289–298Google Scholar
  17. Mari S, Engelmann F, Chabrillange N, Huet C, Micchaux-Ferrièe N (1995) Histo-citological study of apices of coffee (Coffea racemosa and C. sessiliflora) in vitro plantlets during their cryopreservation using the encapsulation-dehydration technique. Cryo Lett 16: 289–298Google Scholar
  18. Martínez D (1999) Crioconservación de apices de tallos de lúpulo: analisis térmico. Tesis Doctoral, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, SpainGoogle Scholar
  19. Martínez D, Revilla MA (1998) Cold acclimation and thermal transitions in the cryopreservation of hop shoot tips. Cryo Lett 19: 333–342Google Scholar
  20. Martínez D, Revilla MA, Espina A, Jaimez E, García JR (1998) Survival cryopreservation of hop shoot tips monitored by differential scanning calorimetry. Thermochim Acta 317: 91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Martínez D, Tamés RS, Revilla MA (1999) Cryopreservation of in vitro grown shoot-tips of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) using encapsulation/dehydration. Plant Cell Rep 19: 59–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Matousek J, Junker V, Vrba L, Schubert J, Patzak J, Steger G (1999) Molecular characterization and genome organization of 7SL RNA genes from hop (Humulus lupulus L.). Gene 239: 173–183PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Murashige T, Skoog FA (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol Plant 15: 473–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Neve RA (1991) Hops. Chapman and Hall, London, pp 1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Niino T, Sakai A (1992) Cryopreservation of alginate-coated in vitro-grown shoot tips of apple, pear, and mulberry. Plant Sci 87: 199–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Niino T, Sakai A, Nojiri K (1992) Cryopreservation of in vitro-grown shoot tips of apple and pear by vitrification. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 28: 261–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Panis B (1995) Cryopreservation of banana (Musa spp.) germplasm. Dissertatons de Agricultura, Katholieke Universitiet, Leuven, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
  28. Panis B, Totté N, Nimmen KV, Withers LA, Swennen R (1996) Cryopreservation of banana (Musa spp.) meristem cultures after preculture on sucrose. Plant Sci 121: 95–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Paulet F, Engelmann F, Glaszmann J (1993) Cryopreservation of apices of in vitro plantlets of sugarcane (Saccharum sp. hybrids) using encapsulation/dehydration. Plant Cell Rep 12: 525–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pillay M, Kenny ST (1996a) Structure and inheritance of ribosomal DNA variants in cultivated and wild hop, Humulus lupulus L. Theor Appl Genet 93: 333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pillay M, Kenny ST (1996b) Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers in hop, Humulus lupulus: level of genetic variability and segregation in F1 progeny. Theor Appl Genet 92: 334–339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Plessis P, Leddet C, Collas A, Dereuddre J (1993) Cryopreservation of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Chardonnay shoot tips by encapsulation-dehydration: effects of pretreatment, cooling and postculture conditions. Cryo Lett 14: 309–320Google Scholar
  33. Probasco G, Winslow S (1986) The use of shoot-tip culture to eliminate viruses from hop varieties grown in the United States. MBAA Tech Q 23: 26–31Google Scholar
  34. Redenbaugh K, Paasch BD, Nichol JW, Kessler ME, Viss PR, Walker KA (1986) Somatic seeds: encapsulation of asexual plant embryos. Biotech 4: 797–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sakai A, Kobayashi,S, Oiyama I (1990) Cryopreservation of nucellar cells of navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osb. var. brasiliensis Tanaka) by vitrification. Plant Cell Rep 9: 30–33Google Scholar
  36. Salmon ES (1934) Two new hops: Brewer’s Favourite and Brewer’s Gold. Agric Coll Wye 34: 93–105Google Scholar
  37. Samyn G, Welvaert W (1983) Producing a “nuclear stock” of virus-free hop plants. Med Fac Land Bouww Rijsunic Gent 48: 877–881Google Scholar
  38. Scottez C, Chevreau E, Godard N, Arnaud Y, Duron M, Dereuddre J (1992) Cryopreservation of cold acclimated shoot tips of pear in vitro cultures after encapsulation-dehydration. Cryobiology 29: 691–700CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sharom M, Willemot C, Thompson J (1994) Chilling injury induces changes in membranes of tomato fruit. Plant Physiol 105: 305–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Vandenbussche B, Demeulemeester MAC, De Proft MP (1993) Cryopreservation of alginate-coated in vitro grown shoot-tips of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) using rapid freezing. Cryo Lett 14: 259–266Google Scholar
  41. Vine SJ, Jones OP (1969) The culture of shoot tips of hop (Humulus lupulus L.) to eliminate viruses. J Hortic Sci 44: 281–284Google Scholar
  42. Wetmore RH, Sorokin S (1955) On the differentiation of xylem. J Arnold Arboretum 36: 305–317Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Revilla
    • 1
  • D. Martínez
    • 1
  1. 1.Departamento Biología de Organismos y Sistemas, Facultad de Biología, C/C. Rodrigo Uría s/nUniversidad de OviedoOviedoSpain

Personalised recommendations