What Do We Know about Antibiotics in the Environment?

  • T. Kümpel
  • R. Alexy
  • K. Kümmerer

Abstract

Antibiotics are extensively used in human and veterinary medicine as well as in aquaculture to prevent or to treat microbial infections and in livestock production to promote the growth of animals. As biocidal substances are designed with the aim of causing a biological effect, they may affect water and soil dwelling organisms when reaching the environment. However, little is known on the occurrence and fate of antibiotics in the environment and their impact on the ecosystem.

Keywords

Toxicity Sludge Biodegradation Sewage Manure 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Kümpel
  • R. Alexy
  • K. Kümmerer

There are no affiliations available

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