A Nutrient Budget Model of the Baltic Sea

  • F. Wulff
  • L. Rahm
  • A.-K. Hallin
  • J. Sandberg
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 148)


The loads of nutrients to the Baltic Sea have increased during this century, especially since the 1950s (Larsson et al. 1985). Since the Baltic is a semi-enclosed estuary with a narrow entrance to the North Sea, it has a long hydraulic residence time (e.g. Wulff and Stigebrandt 1989; Chap. 2). One consequence is a high degree of nutrient accumulation in the water mass (see Chap. 12). Empirical modeling of the nutrient dynamics in this region by Wulff and Stigebrandt (1989) gave long residence times and a low degree of nutrient export to the North Sea, a common feature of coastal systems with long water residence time (Nixon et al. 1996). The environmental effects of eutrophication in the Baltic Sea are qualitatively well documented (Rosenberg et al. 1990; HELCOM 1997). Despite this, the quantitative relationships between biogeochemical and physical processes, nutrient loads, climatic variations and eutrophication are not well described. Nevertheless, they are crucial in any scientific analysis of this ecosystem as well as from the point of view of coastal zone management. A first step towards this is to construct nutrient budgets where the relationships between loads, concentrations as well as exports and imports by advective or biogeochemical processes are estimated. This is the purpose of this chapter.


Nutrient Load Budget Calculation Swedish Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Error Estimate Baltic Deep Water 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Wulff
  • L. Rahm
  • A.-K. Hallin
  • J. Sandberg

There are no affiliations available

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