Dynamics and Distribution of Hydrophobic Organic Compounds in the Baltic Sea

  • J. Axelman
  • C. Näf
  • C. Bandh
  • R. Ishaq
  • H. Pettersen
  • Y. Zebühr
  • D. Broman
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 148)

Abstract

The main objectives of this study were to quantify the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) between air, water and sediments and to estimate the most important fluxes between these compartments by synthesizing all data in a semi-empirical mass balance of PAHs and PCBs for the Baltic Sea.

Keywords

Sediment Trap Diffusive Exchange Hydrophobic Organic Compound Volatilization Flux Great Lake Area 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anonymous (1986) Water balance of the Baltic Sea. Helsinki Commission, HelsinkiGoogle Scholar
  2. Axelman J, Bandh C, Broman D, Carman R, Jonsson P, Larsson H, Linder H, Näf C, Pettersen H (1995) Time-trend analysis of PAH and PCB sediment fluxes in the northern Baltic proper using different dating methods. Mar Freshwater Res 46: 137–144Google Scholar
  3. Axelman J, Broman D, Näf C (1997) Field measurements of the partitioning of PCBs in planktonic organisms–effects of growth, particle size and solvent-solute interactions. Environ Sci Technol 31: 665–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Axelman J, Näf C, Broman D (2000) Vertical flux and particulate/water dynamics of polychlorinated biphenyls ( PCBs) in the open Baltic Sea. Ambio 29: 210–216Google Scholar
  5. Baker JE, Eisenreich SJ (1990) Concentrations and fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls across the air-water interface of Lake Superior. Environ Sci Technol 24: 342–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker JE, Eisenreich SJ, Eadie BJ (1991) Sediment trap fluxes and benthic recycling of organic carbon, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and polychlorobiphenyl congeners in Lake Superior. Environ Sci Technol 25: 500–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bandh C, Ishaq R, Broman D, Näf C, Rönnqvist-Nii Y, Zebühr Y (1994) Separation for subsequent analysis of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PAHs according to aromaticity and planarity using a two-dimensional HPLC-system. Environ Sci Technol 30: 214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baron JA, Thibodeaux LJ, Reible DD, Templet P-H, Henry CB Jr (1990) Laboratory simulation of diffusion in contaminated sediments. Estuaries 13: 81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bergström S, Carlsson B (1994) River runoff to the Baltic Sea: 1950–1990. Ambio 23: 280–287Google Scholar
  10. Bidleman TF (1984) Estimation of vapor pressures nonpolar organic compounds by capillary gas chromatography. Anal Chem 56: 2490–2496PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bidleman TF (1988) Atmospheric processes. Environ Sci Technol 22: 361–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bignert A, Göthberg A, Jensen S, Litzén K, Odsjö T, Olsson M, Reutergsrdh L (1993) The need for adequate biological sampling in ecotoxicological investigations: a retrospective study of twenty years’ pollution monitoring. Sci Total Environ 128: 121–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Blomqvist S, Larsson U (1994) Detrital bedrock elements as tracers of settling resuspended particulate matter in a coastal area of the Baltic Sea. Limnol Oceanogr 39: 880–896CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Booij K, Achterberg EP, Sundby B (1992) Release rates of chlorinated hydrocarbons from contaminated sediments. Neth J Sea Res 29: 297–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Broman D, Näf C, Lundbergh I, Zebühr Y (1990a) An in-situ on the distribution, biotransformation and flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in an aquatic food chain (seston-Mytilus edulis L.-Somateria mollissima L.) from the Baltic: an ecotoxicological perspective. Environ Tox Chem 9: 429–442Google Scholar
  16. Broman D, Kugelberg J, Näf C (1990b) Two hydrodynamically stable self-suspended buoyant sediment traps. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 30: 429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Broman D, Näf C, Zebühr Y (1991a) Long term high-and low-volume air sampling of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons along a transect from urban to remote areas on the Swedish Baltic coast. Environ Sci Technol 25: 1841–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Broman D, Näf C, Rolff C, Zebühr Y (1991b) Occurrence and dynamics of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the mixed surface layer of remote coastal and offshore waters of the Baltic. Environ Sci Technol 25: 1850–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brunner S, Hornung E, Santi H, Wolff E, Piringer OG, Altschuh J, Brüggemann R (1990) Henry’s law constants for polychlorinated biphenyls: experimental determination and structure-property relationships. Environ Sci Technol 24: 1751–1754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen H-W (1993) Fluxes of organic pollutants from the sediments in the Boston Harbour. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, BostonGoogle Scholar
  21. Chin Y-P, McNichol AP, Gschwend P (1991) Quantification and characterization of pore-water organic colloids. In: Baker RA (ed) Organic substances in sediments and water. Lewis, Chelsea, MIGoogle Scholar
  22. De Bruijn J, Busser F, Seinen W, Hermens J (1989) Determination of octanol/water partition coefficients for hydrophobic organic chemicals with the “slow-stirring” method. Environ Tox Chem 8: 499–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dickhut RM, Gustafson KE (1995) Atmospheric washout of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the southern Chesapeake Bay region. Environ Sci Technol 29: 1518–1525PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eisenreich SJ (1987) The chemical limnology of nonpolar organic contaminants: polychlorinated biphenyls in Lake Superior. In: Hites RA (ed) Source and fates of aquatic pollutants. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  25. Eisenreich SJ, Looney BB, Thornton JD (1981) Airborne organic contaminants in the Great Lakes ecosystem. Environ Sci Technol 15: 30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elmgren R (1984) Trophic dynamics in the enclosed, brackish Baltic Sea. Rapp P-v Réun Cons Int Explor Mer 183: 152–163Google Scholar
  27. Foreman WT, Bidleman TF (1985) Vapor pressure estimates of individual polychlorinated biphenyls and commercial fluids using gas chromatographic data. J Chromatogr 330: 203–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Formica SJ, Baron JA, Thibodeaux LJ, Valsaraj KT (1988) PCB transport into lake sediments. Conceptual model and laboratory simulation. Environ Sci Technol 22: 1435–1440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gustafsson O, Gschwend PM (1997) Soot as strong partition medium for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic systems. In: Eganhouse R (ed) Molecular markers in environmental geochemistry. American Chemical Society, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  30. Hawker DW, Connell DW (1988) Octanol-water partition coefficients of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Environ Sci Technol 22: 382–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hoff RM, Muir DCG, Grift NP (1992) Annual cycle of polychlorinated biphenyls and organohalogen pesticides in air in southern Ontario. 1. Air concentration data. Environ Sci Technol 26: 266–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hornbuckle KC, Sweet CW, Pearson RF, Swackhamer DH, Eisenreich SJ (1995) Assessing annual water-air fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls in Lake Michigan. Environ Sci Technol 29: 869–877PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Jonsson P (1992) Large-scale changes of contaminants in Baltic Sea sediments during the twentieth century. Doctoral Thesis, Uppsala UniversityGoogle Scholar
  34. Junge CE (1974) Residence time and variability of tropospheric trace gases. Tellus 26: 477–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Junge CE (1977) Basic considerations about trace constituents in the atmosphere as related to the fate of global pollutants. In: Suffet IH (ed) Fate of pollutants in the air and water environments. Wiley-Interscience, New York, pp 7–25Google Scholar
  36. Karickhoff SW (1981) Semi-empirical estimation of sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on natural sediments and soils. Chemosphere 10: 833–846CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kjeller L-O, Rappe C (1995) Time trends in levels, patterns, and profiles for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in a sediment core from the Baltic proper. Environ Sci Technol 29: 346–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Karickhoff SW, Brown DS, Scott A (1979) Sorption of hydrophobic pollutants on natural water sediments. Water Res 13: 241–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Leppänen J-M, Alenius P (1988) Cycling of organic matter during the vernal growth period in the open northern Baltic proper. I. Hydrography, currents and related factors. Finn Mar Res 255: 3–18Google Scholar
  40. Mackay D (1989) Modeling the long-term behavior of a contaminant in a large lake. J Great Lakes Res 15: 183–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mackay D, Shiu WY, Ma KC (1991) Illustrated handbook of physical-chemical properties and environmental fate for organic chemicals, vols I-II. Lewis, Chelsea, MIGoogle Scholar
  42. McGroddy SE, Farrington JW, Gschwend PM (1996) Comparison of the in-situ and desorption sediment-water partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls. Environ Sci Technol 30: 172–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McVeety BD, Hites RA (1988) Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to water surfaces: a mass balance approach. Atmos Environ 22:511–536CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. National Academy of Science (1979) Polychlorinated biphenyls. National Academy of Science, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  45. Neumann T, Christiansen C, Clasen S, Emeis K-C, Kunzendorf H (1997) Geochemical records of salt-water inflows into deep basins of the Baltic Sea. Cont Shelf Res 17: 95–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Ott WR (1990) A physical explanation of the log normality of pollutant concentrations. J Air Waste Manage Assoc 40: 1378–1383PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Panshin SY, Hites RA (1994) Atmospheric concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls at Bermuda. Environ Sci Technol 28: 2001–2007PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Pearlman RS, Yalkowsky SH, Banerjee S (1984) Water solubilities of polynuclear aromatic and heteroaromatic compounds. J Phys Chem Ref Data 13: 555–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Rekker RF, De Kort NN (1979) The hydrophobic fragment constant; an extension to a 1000 point data set. Eur J Med Chem Chim Ther 14: 479–488Google Scholar
  50. Schulz DE, Petrick G, Duinker JC (1989) Complete characterization of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in commercial Aroclor and Clophen mixtures by multidimensional gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Environ Sci Technol 23: 852–859CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Schulz-Bull DE, Petrick G, Kannan N, Duinker JC (1995) Distribution of individual chlorobiphenyls ( PCB) in solution and suspension in the Baltic Sea. Mar Chem 48: 245–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schwartzenbach RP, Gschwend PM, Imboden DM (1993) Environmental organic chemistry. Wiley Interscience, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  53. Slinn WNG, Hasse L, Hicks BB, Hogan AW, Lal D, Liss PS, Munnich KO, Sehmel GA,Vittor O (1978) Some aspects of the transfer of atmospheric trace constituents past the air-sea interface. Atmos Environ 12: 2055–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Swackhamer DL, Skoglund RS (1993) Bioaccumulation of PCBs by algae: kinetics versus equilibrium. Environ Tox Chem 12: 831–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. ten Hulscher TEM, van der Velde LE, Bruggeman WA (1992) Temperature dependence of Henry’s law constants for selected chlorobenzenes, polychlorinated biphenyls and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Environ Tox Chem 11: 1595–1603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Ullman WJ, Aller RC (1982) Diffusion coefficients in nearshore marine sediments. Limnol Oceanogr 27: 552–556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Whitby KT (1978) The physical characteristics of sulfur aerosols. Atmos Environ 12: 135–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Wu S, Gschwend PM (1986) Sorption kinetics of hydrophobic organic compounds to natural sediments and soils. Environ Sci Technol 20: 717–725PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zebühr Y, Näf C, Broman D, Lexén K, Colmsjö A, Östman C (1989) Sampling techniques and clean up procedures for some complex environmental samples with respect to PCDDs and PCDFs and other organic contaminants. Chemosphere 19: 34–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Axelman
  • C. Näf
  • C. Bandh
  • R. Ishaq
  • H. Pettersen
  • Y. Zebühr
  • D. Broman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations