Arctic Sea Ice and Its Role in Climate Variability and Change
The presence of the Arctic sea ice cover has a profound influence on the polar climate in the Northern Hemisphere (e.g., see Walsh, 1983; Parkinson et al., 1987). First, the ice cover reflects a large fraction of the incident solar radiation because the ice has a larger albedo than that of open water. Secondly, the ice cover acts as an insulating barrier over the relatively warm ocean and thus reduces ocean-to-atmosphere heat exchanges, especially during winter when the Arctic air is very cold. Without an ice cover, the Arctic surface air temperature would be about 10–15 degrees C warmer than today’s annual average temperature in this region. Such a warm Arctic region is believed to have last occurred during the mid-Cretaceous, 100 Myr ago. Thirdly, the ice cover strongly affects the momentum and mass transfers from the atmosphere to the ocean.
KeywordsBurning Dioxide Microwave Europe Shipping
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 8.Holland, M. M., Bitz, C. M., Eby, M. and Weaver, A. J. 2000. The role of ice-ocean interactions in the variability of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J. Climate, in press.Google Scholar
- 20.Mysak, L. A. and Power, S. B. 1992. Sea-ice anomalies in the western Arctic and Greenland-Iceland Sea and their relation to an interdecadal climate cycle. Climatological Bulletin 26, 147–176.Google Scholar
- 24.Parker, D. E., Jackson, M. and Horton, E. B. 1995. The GISST 2.2 sea surface temperature and sea-ice climatology. Tech. Rep. 63, Hadley Cent. for Clim. Predict. and Res., Bracknell, England.Google Scholar
- 25.Parkinson, C. L., Josefino, C. J., Zwally, H. J., Cavalieri, D. J., Gloersen, P. and Campbell, W. J.1987. Arctic sea ice 1973–1976: Satellite passive microwave observations. NASA SP-489, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D. C., 296 pp.Google Scholar
- 26.Pickard, G. L. and Emery, W. J. 1990. Descriptive Physical Oceanography: An Introduction. Fifth Edition. Pergamon Press, New York.Google Scholar