Post-Normal Science. Science and Governance under Conditions of Complexity
Policy-related research issues are particularly challenging for science. They include masses of detail concerning many particular topics, which require separate analysis and management. At the same time, there are broad strategic considerations which should guide regulatory work, such as those connected with precaution, safety or sustainability. Nothing can be managed in a convenient isolation; problems are mutually implicated extending across many scale levels of space and time; and uncertainties and value-loadings of all sorts and all degrees of severity affect data and theories alike.
KeywordsAssure Expense Arena Stake Metaphor
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