Advertisement

Rehabilitation of Rotator Cuff Injuries

  • Alberto Selvanetti
  • Arrigo Giombini
  • Ignazio Caruso

Abstract

The shoulder complex is particularly susceptible to injury, as it maintains a precarious interplay between stability and motion and is repetitively stressed in occupational and sporting activities. Rotator cuff disorders are among the most common causes of pain and impaired performance in athletes, mainly those involved in repetitive overhead throwing activities and contact sports [1]. In athletes, cuff disease represents a possibly coexistent spectrum of pathologies progressing from tendon strain and edema through inflammation and microscopic failure of fibers after repetitive wear, the final stages being gross cuff fraying and tear. According to some authors [2 – 4], rotator cuff lesions maybe classified based on the etiological mechanism of injury proposed by the following scheme:
  1. 1.

    Primary or secondary compressive cuff lesion: external or subacromial impingement syndrome, posterosuperior or internal impingement syndrome

     
  2. 2.

    Primary or secondary tensile cuff lesion

     
  3. 3.

    Macrotraumatic cuff failure resulting from a single direct or indirect traumatic accident or from repetitive microtrauma displayed by a single event

     
Athletes involved in contact sports are more likely to sustain traumatic cuff tears because of the arms being forcefully abducted or violently pulled away from the body or by a fall or blow to the outstretched arm in a forced elevated position.

Keywords

Rotator Cuff Kinetic Chain Gradual Return Posterior Shoulder Subacromial Impingement Syndrome 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Glousman R (1993) Electromyographic analysis and its role in the athletic shoulder. Clin Orthop Rel Res 288: 27–34Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Meister K, Andrews JR (1993) Classification and treatment of rotator cuff injuries in the overhead athlete. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 413–421PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Morrison DS (1996) Conservative management of partial-thickness rotator cuff lesions. In: Burkhead WZ Jr (ed) Rotator cuff disorders. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 249–257Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Blevins FT (1997) Rotator cuff pathology in athletes. Sports Med 24: 205–220PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kelley MJ (1995) Anatomic and biomechanical rationale for rehabilitation of the athlete’s shoulder. J Sports Rehabil 4: 122–154Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Speer KP, Warren RF, Horowitz L (1996) The efficacy of cryotherapy in the postoperative shoulder. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 5: 62–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Levy AS, Kelly B, Lintner S, Speer K (1997) Penetration of cryotherapy in treatment after shoulder arthroscopy. Arthroscopy 13: 461–464PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Goupille P, Sibilia J (1996) Local corticosteroid injections in the treatment of rotator cuff tendinitis (except for frozen shoulder and calcific tendinitis). Groupe Rhumatologique Francais de l’Epaule ( GREP ). Clin Exp Rheumatol 14: 561–566Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Tillander B, Franzen LE, Karlsson MH, Norlin R (1999) Effect of steroid injections on the rotator cuff: An experimental study in rats. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 8: 271–274Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van der Windt DAWM, Van der Heijden GJMG, Scholten RJPM, Koes BW, Bouter LM (1995) The efficacy of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for shoulder complaints: A systematic review. J Clin Epidemiol 48: 691–704Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Simunovic Z (1996) Low level laser therapy with trigger points technique: A clinical study on 243 patients. J Clin Laser Med Surg 14: 163–167PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ginn KA, Herbert RD, Khouw W, Lee R (1997) A randomized, controlled clinical trial of a treatment for shoulder pain. Phys Ther 77: 802–809PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Winters JC, Sobel JS, Groenier KH, Arendzen JH, Meyboom de Jong B (1997) Comparison of physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection for treating shoulder complaints in general practice: Randomised, single blind study. BMJ 314: 1320–1325Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Van der Heijden GJMG, Van der Windt DAWM, Kleijnen J, Koes BW, Bouter LM (1996) Steroid injections for shoulder disorders: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Br J Gen Pract 46: 309–316Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Van der Heijden GJMG, Van der Windt DA, De Winter AF (1997) Physiotherapy for patients with soft tissue shoulder disorders: A systematic review of randomised clinical trials. BMJ 315: 25–30Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Van der Heijden GJMG, Leffers P, Wolters PJ, Verheijden JJ, Van Mameren H, Houben JP, Bouter LM, Knipschild PG (1999) No effect of bipolar interferential electrotherapy and pulsed ultrasound for soft tissue shoulder disorders: A randomised controlled trial. Ann Rheum Dis 58: 530–540Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Green S, Buchbinder R, Glazier R, Forbes A (1998) Systematic review of randomised controlled trials of interventions for painful shoulder: Selection criteria, outcome assessment, and efficacy. BMJ 316: 354–360Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Van der Windt DA, Van der Heijden GJ, Van den Berg SG, Ter Riet G, De Winter AF, Bouter LM (1999) Ultrasound therapy for musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review. Pain 81: 257–271Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Winters JC, Jorritsma W, Groenier KH, Sobel JS, De Jong MB, Arendzen HJ (1999) Treatment of shoulder complaints in general practice: Long term results of a randomised, single blind study comparing physiotherapy, manipulation, and corticosteroid injection. BMJ 318: 1395–1396Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Harryman D, Sidles J, Clark J, McQuade K, Gibb T, Matsen F (1990) Translation of the humeral head on the glenoid with passive glenohumeral motion. J Bone Joint Surg Am 72: 1334–1343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tyler TT, Roy T, Nicholas SJ, Gleim GW (1999) Reliability and validity of a new method of measuring posterior shoulder tightness. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29: 262–274PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Dockery ML, Wright TW, LaStayo PC (1998) Electromyography of the shoulder: An analysis of passive modes of exercise. Orthopedics 21: 1181–1184Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lastayo PC, Wright T, Jaffe R, Hartzel J (1998) Continuous passive motion after repair of the rotator cuff. A prospective outcome study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 80: 1002–1011Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Maitland GD. Peripheral manipulation ( third edn ). Butter-worth, London, 1991Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Speer KP, Cavanaugh JT, Warren RF, Day L, Wickiewicz TL (1993) A role for hydrotherapy in shoulder rehabilitation. Am J Sports Med 21: 850–853PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kelly BT, Kirkendall DT, Speer KP (1996) The rationale for aquatic physical therapy in the shoulder. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28: 80Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Fujisawa H, Suenaga N, Minami A (1998) Electromyographic study during isometric exercise of the shoulder in head-out water immersion. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 7: 491–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kibler BW, McQueen C, Uhl T (1988) Fitness evaluation and fitness findings in competitive junior tennis players. Clin Sports Med 7: 403–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Johanson RL, Callis M, Potts J, Shall LM (1995) A modified internal rotation stretching technique for overhead and throwing athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 21: 216–219Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Donatelli RA, McMahon TJ (1997) Manual therapy techniques. In: Donatelli RA (ed) Physical therapy of the shoulder ( third edn ). Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 335–364Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Conroy DE, Hayes KW (1998) The effect of joint mobilization as a component of comprehensive treatment for primary shoulder impingement syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 28: 3–14PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lukasiewicz AC, McClure P, Michener L, Pratt N, Sennett B (1999) Comparison of 3-dimensional scapular position and orientation between subjects with and without shoulder impingement. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 29: 574–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pink MM, Perry J (1996) Biomechanics. In: Jobe FW (ed) Operative techniques in upper extremity sports injuries. Mosby, St Louis, pp 109–123Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Payne LZ, Deng XH, Craig EV, Torzilli PA, Warren RF (1997) The combined dynamic and static contributions to subacromial impingement. A biomechanical analysis. Am J Sports Med 25: 801–808Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morrey BF, Itoi E, Kai-Nan An (1998) Biomechanics of the shoulder. In: Rockwood CA Jr, Matsen III FA (eds) The shoulder ( second edn ). W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 233–276Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Paine RM, Voight M (1993) The role of the scapula. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 386–391PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kibler WB (1998) The role of the scapula in athletic shoulder function. Am J Sports Med 26: 325–337PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Matsen FA III, Harryman DT II, Sidles JA (1991) Mechanics of glenohumeral instability. Clin Sports Med 10: 783–788PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Glousman RE, Jobe FW, Tibone J, Moynes D, Antonelli D, Perry J (1988) Dynamic electromyographic analysis of the throwing shoulder with glenohumeral instability. J Bone Joint Surg 70A: 220–226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rodosky MW, Harner CD, Fu F (1994) The role of the long head of the biceps muscle and superior glenoid labrum in anterior stability of the shoulder. Am J Sports Med 22: 121–130PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Warner JJP, McMahon PJ (1995) The role of the long head of the biceps brachii in superior stability of the glenohumeral joint. J Bone Joint Surg Am 77: 366–372PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Litchfield R, Hawkins R, Dillman CJ, Atkins J, Hagerman G (1993) Rehabilitation of the overhead athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 433–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Jobe FW, Pink M (1993) Classification and treatment of shoulder dysfunction in the overhead athlete. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 427–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ludewig PM, Cook TM, Nawoczenski DA (1996) Three-dimensional scapular orientation and muscle activity at selected positions of humeral elevation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 24: 57–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kebaetse M, McClure P, Pratt NE (1999) Thoracic position effct on shoulder range of motion, strength, and three-dimensional scapular kinematics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 80: 945–950PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Wang C-H, McClure P, Pratt NE, Nobilini R (1999) Stretching and strengthening exercises: their effect on three-di-mensional scapular kinematics. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 80: 923–929PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Host H (1995) Scapular taping in the treatment of anterior shoulder impingement. Phys Ther 75: 803–812PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Morin GE, Tiberio D, Austin G (1997) The effect of upper trapezius taping on electromyographic activity in the upper and middle trapezius region. J Sport Rehabil 6: 309–318Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kibler WB, Livingston BK, Bruce RB (1995) Current concepts in shoulder rehabilitation. Adv Oper Orthop 3: 249–300Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kamkar A, Irrgang JJ, Whitney SL (1993) Nonoperative management of secondary shoulder impingement syndrome. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 17: 212–224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Townsend H, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J (1991) Electromyographic analysis of the glenohumeral muscles during a baseball rehabilitation program. Am J Sports Med 19: 264–272PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wilk KE, Arrigo C, Andrews JR (1994) Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the athlete’s shoulder. J South Orthop Assoc 3: 216–231Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pink MM, Screnar PM, Tollefson KD et al (1996) Injury prevention and rehabilitation in the upper extremity. In: Jobe FW, Pink MM, Glousman RE et al (eds) Operative techniques in upper extremity sports injuries. Mosby, St Louis, PP3–14Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Decker MJ, Hintermeister RA, Faber KJ, Hawkins RJ (1999) Serratus anterior muscle activity during selected rehabilitation exercises. Am J Sports Med 27: 784–791PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dickoff-Hoffman SA (1994) Neuromuscular control exercises for shoulder instability. In: Andrews JR, Wilk KE (eds) The athlete’s shoulder. Churchill Livingstone, New York, PP 435–450Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moseley JB, Jobe FW, Pink M, Perry J, Tibone J (1992) EMG analysis of the scapular muscles during a shoulder rehabilitation program. Am J Sports Med 20: 128–134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    McCann PD, Wootten ME, Kadaba MP, Bigliani LU (1993) A kinematic and electromyographic study of shoulder rehabilitation exercises. Clin Orthop 288: 179–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hintermeister RA, Lange GW, Schultheis JM, Bey MJ, Hawkins RJ (1998) Electromyographic activity and applied load during shoulder rehabilitation exercises using elastic resistance. Am J Sports Med 26: 210–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kibler WB. Shoulder rehabilitation: Principles and practice (1998) Med Sci Sports Exerc 30[Suppl]:S40–S50Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Horrigan JM, Shellock FG, Mink JH, Deutsch AL (1999) Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of muscle usage associated with three exercises for rotator cuff rehabilitation. Med Sci Sports Exerc 31: 1361–1366PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Jobe FW, Moynes DR (1982) Delineation of diagnostic criteria and a rehabilitation program for rotator cuff injuries. Am J Sports Med 10: 336–339PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Blackburn TA, McLeod WD, White B, Wofford L (1990) EMG analysis of posterior rotator cuff exercises. Athl Train 25: 40–45Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ballantyne BT, O’Hare SJ, Paschall JL, Pavia-Smith MM, Pitz AM, Gillon JF, Soderberg GL (1993) Electromyographic activity of selected shoulder muscles in commonly used therapeutic exercises. Phys Ther 73: 668–682PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Kelly BT, Kadman WR, Speer KP (1996) The manual muscle examination for rotator cuff strength: An electromyographic investigation. Am J Sports Med 24: 581–588Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Malanga GA, Jenp YN, Grownwy EC, An KN (1996) EMG analysis of shoulder positioning in testing and strengthening the supraspinatus. Med Sci Sports Exerc 28: 661–664PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jobe FW, Pink M (1993) Classification and treatment of shoulder dysfunction in the overhead athlete. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 427–432PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wilk KE, Arrigo CA, Andrews JR (1996) Closed and open kinetic chain exercises for the upper extremity. J Sport Rehabil 5: 88–102Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kibler WB, Livingston BK, Chandler TJ (1997) Shoulder rehabilitation: Clinical application, evaluation and rehabilitation. In: Springfield DS (ed) Instructional course lectures 46. American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons, Rose-mont USA, pp 43–51Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Johnston TB (1937) The movements of the shoulder joints: A plea for the use of the “plane of the scapula” as the plane of the reference for movements occurring at the humero-scapular joint. J Bone Joint Surg Br 25: 252–260Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Poppen NK, Walker PS (1976) Normal and abnormal motion of the shoulder. J Bone Joint Surg Am 58: 195–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Wilk KE, Arrigo C (1993) Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the athletic shoulder. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 18: 365–375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kabat H (1965) Proprioceptive facilitation in therapeutic exercise. In: Lichts E (ed) Therapeutic exercise. Elizabeth Licht, New Haven, pp 327–343Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Voss DE, Ionfa MK, Myers BJ (1986) Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Jerosch J, Steinbeck J, Clahsen H, Schmitz-Nahrath M, Grosse-Hackmann A (1993) Function of the glenohumeral ligaments in active stabilisation of the shoulder joint. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc 1: 152–158PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Vangsness CT Jr, Ennis M, Taylor JG, Atkinson R (1995) Neural anatomy of the glenohumeral ligaments, labrum and subacromial bursa. Arthroscopy 11: 180–184PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ide K, Shirai Y, Ito H, Ito H (1996) Sensory nerve supply in the human subacromial bursa. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 5: 371–382PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lephart SM, Pincivero DM, Giraldo JL, Fu FH (1997) The role of proprioception in the management and rehabilitation of athletic injuries. Am J Sports Med 25: 130–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gohlke F, Janssen E, Leidel J, Heppelmann B, Eulert J (1998) Histopathological findings in the proprioception of the shoulder joint. Orthopade 27: 510–517PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Morisawa Y (1998) Morphological study of mechanorecep-tors on the coracoacromial ligament. J Orthop Sci 3: 102–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Carpenter JE, Blasier RB, Pellizzon GG (1998) The effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder joint position sense. Am J Sports Med 26: 262–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Smith RL, Brunolli J (1989) Shoulder kinesthesia after shoulder dislocation. Phys Ther 69: 106–112PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Forwell LA, Carnahan H (1996) Proprioception during manual aiming in individual with shoulder instability and controls. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 23: 111–119PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Borsa PA, Lephart SM, Kocher MS, Lephart SP (1994) Functional assessment and rehabilitation of shoulder proprioception for glenohumeral instability. J Sports Rehabil 3: 84–104Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Slobounov SM, Poole ST, Simon RF, Slobounov ES, Bush JA, Sebastianelli W, Kraemer W (1999) The efficacy of modern technology to improve healthy and injured shoulder joint position sense. J Sports Rehabil 8: 10–23Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Voight ML. Stretch-strengthening: An introduction to plyo-metrics (1992) Orthop Phys Ther Clin North Am 1:243–252Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Cordasco FA, Wolfe IN, Wooten ME, Bigliani LU (1996) An electromyographic analysis of the shoulder during a medicine ball rehabilitation program. Am J Sports Med 24: 386–392PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Chu D (1989) Plyometrics exercises with a medicine ball. Bittersweet Publishing Co, Livermore, USAGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gambetta V, Odgers S (1991) The complete guide to medicine ball training. Optimum Sports Training, Sarasota, USAGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Wilk KE, Voight M, Keirns MA, Gambetta V, Andrews JR, Dillman CJ (1993) Stretch-shortening drills for the upper extremity: Theory and clinical application. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 17: 225–239Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wilk KE (1996) Conditioning and training techniques. In: Hawkins RJ, Misamore GW (eds) Shoulder injuries in athletes. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 339–364Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wilk KE, Arrigo C (1992) An integrated approach to upper extremity exercises. Orthop Phys Ther Clin North Am I: 337–36OGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Wilk KE, Harrelson GL, Arrigo C, Chmielewski T (1998) Shoulder rehabilitation In: Andrews JR, Harrelson GL, Wilk KE (eds) Physical rehabilitation of the injured athlete (second edn) W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 478–553Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Wilk KE, Andrews JR, Arrigo CA et al (1997) Preventive and rehabilitative exercises for the shoulder and elbow ( fifth edn ). American Sports Medicine Institute, Birmingham, USAGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Powers ME (1998) Rotor cuff training for pitchers. J Sports Rehabil 7: 285–299Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hawkins R, Litchfield R, Atkins G, Hagerman G, Dillman CJ (1996) Rehabilitation of the shoulder. Ann Chir et Gyn 85: 173–184Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Fees M, Decker T, Snyder-Mackler L, Axe MJ (1998) Upper extremity weight-training modifications for the injured athlete: A clinical perspective. Am J Sports Med 26: 732–742Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Neer CS, Walsh RP (1977) The shoulder in sports. Orthop Clin North Am 8: 583–591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Nirschl RP (1988) Prevention and treatment of elbow and shoulder injuries in the tennis player. Clin Sports Med 7: 289–308PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Jobe FW, Tibone JF, Jobe CM et al (1990) The shoulders in sports. In: Rockwood CA Jr, Matsen FA III (eds) The shoulder. W.B. Saunders Co, Philadelphia, pp 961–990Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Walch G, Liotard JP, Boileau P, Noel E (1991) Un autre conflit de l’épaule: Le “conflit glénoïdien postéro-superieur”. Rev Chir Orthop Réparatrice Appar Mot 77: 571–574Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Walch G, Boileau P, Noël E, Donell ST (1992) Impingement of the deep surface of the supraspinatus tendon on the po-sterosuperior glenoid rim: An arthroscopic study. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 1: 238–245Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Walch G, Liotard JP, Bolileau P, Noël E 1993 ) Le conflit glénoïdien postéro-supérieur: un autre conflit de l’épaule. J Radiol 74: 47–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Jobe CM, Sidles J (1993) Evidence for a superior glenoid impingement upon the rotator cuff (abstract). J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2:Si9Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Liu SH, Boynton E (1993) Posterior superior impingement of the rotator cuff on the glenoid rim as a cause of shoulder pain in the overhead athlete. Arthroscopy 9: 697–699PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Davidson PA, Elattrache NS, Jobe CM, Jobe FW (1995) Rotator cuff and posterior-superior glenoid labrum injury associated with increased glenohumeral motion: A new site of impingement. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 4: 384–390Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Rossi R, Ternamain PJ, Cerciello G, Walch G (1994) II con-flitto glenoideo postero-superiore dell’atleta: valore diagnostico della radiologia tradizionale e della risonanza magnética. Radiol Med 87: 22–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Tirman PF, Bost FW, Steinbach LS, Mall JC, Peterfy CG, Sampson TG, Sheenan WE, Forbes JR, Genant HK (1994) MR arthrographic depiction of tears of the rotator cuff: Benefit of abduction and external rotation of the arm. Radiology 192: 851–856Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tirman PF, Bost FW, Garvin GJ, Peterfy CG, Mall JC, Steinbach LS, Feller JF, Crues III JV (1994) Posterosuperior glenoid impingement of the shoulder: Findings at MR imaging and MR arthrography with arthroscopic correlation. Radiology 193: 431–436Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jobe CM (1995) Posterior superior glenoid impingement: Expanded spectrum. Arthroscopy 11: 530–536PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jobe CM (1996) Superior glenoid impingement: Current concepts. Clin Orthop Rel Res 330: 98–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Giombini A, Rossi F, Pettrone FA, Dragoni S (1997) Posterosuperior glenoid rim impingement as a cause of shoulder pain in top level waterpolo players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 37: 273–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Halbrecht JL, Tirman P, Atkin D (1999) Internal impingement of the shoulder: Comparison of findings between the throwing and nonthrowing shoulders of college baseball players. Arthroscopy 15: 253–258Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Paley KJ, Jobe FW, Pink MM, Kvitne RS, ElAttrache NS (2000) Arthroscopic findings in the overhand throwing athlete: Evidence for posterior internal impingement of the rotator cuff. Arthroscopy 16: 35–40Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    MacFarland EG, Hsu CY, Neira C, O’Neil O (1999) Internal impingement of the shoulder: A clinical and arthroscopic analysis. J Shoulder Elbow Surg 8: 458–460Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Barber FA, Morgan CD, Burkhart SS, Jobe CM (1999) La-brum/biceps/cuff dysfunction in the throwing athlete. Arthroscopy 15: 852–857PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lombardo SJ, Jobe FW, Kerlan RK, Carter VS, Shields CL Jr (1977) Posterior shoulder lesions in throwing athletes. Am J Sports Med 5: 106–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Andrews JR, Broussard TS, Carson WG (1985) Arthroscopy of the shoulder in the management of partial tears of the rotator cuff: A preliminary report. Arthroscopy 1: 117–122Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jobe FW, Kvitne RS, Giangarra CE (1989) Shoulder pain in the overhand or throwing athlete: The relationship of anterior instability and rotator cuff impingement. Orthop Rev 18: 963–975Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Andrews JR, Alexander EJ (1995) Rotator cuff injury in throwing and racquet sports. Sports Med Arthroscopy Rev 3: 30–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Blevins FT, Hayes WM, Warren RF (1996) Rotator cuff injury in contact athletes. Am J Sports Med 24: 263–267PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alberto Selvanetti
  • Arrigo Giombini
  • Ignazio Caruso

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations