Bipolar flows — or jet sources — are abundant in the Universe. They first made their appearance in the early 1960s, as (1) extended, extragalactic radio sources, of sizes between ≳ 102pc and ≲ Mpc, powered by quasars. Miniature copies of them were discovered less than 20 years later, mostly at optical and infrared frequencies, powered by (2) young binary neutron stars (like SS 433) and BHCs, (3) very young ordinary stars (pre-T-Tauri stars, YSOs), and probably even (4) forming binary white dwarfs, at the centers of planetary nebulae. The stellar-mass ones also tend to be called micro quasars. The jet family therefore consists of 4 distinct classes; see Fig. 11.1, Plate 10, and the cover picture.
KeywordsAccretion Disk Active Galactic Nucleus Lorentz Factor Planetary Nebula Central Engine
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