Transport is an important source of emissions of many pollutants to the air, e.g. nitrogen oxides, fine particles, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, sulphur dioxide, various volatile organic compounds and others. The emissions of these substances cause considerable damage affecting a wide range of receptors including human health, flora and fauna and materials. These damages are in general not adequately reflected in the transport prices; as long as third parties and not the transport user himself is effected, they represent external effects. If such effects exist but are not adequately considered, when making decisions — for example about the number and destinations of trips, the choice of the transport mode, or investments in infrastructure — a non-optimal allocation of resources leading to welfare losses may occur. Hence, external effects should be taken into account when making decisions. This makes it necessary to quantify and monetise the external effects
KeywordsLife Cycle Assessment External Cost Damage Cost Impact Pathway Heavy Duty Vehicle
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