Regionalisation of Precipitation in Castilla and Leon (Spain). Analysis of its Temporal behaviour

  • Jose Luis Labajo
  • Antonio Piorno


From the 44 weather stations used to compile the database on precipitation in the Regional Community of Castilla and León (Spain), we selected a set that would cover uniformly the study zone and that would have sufficiently long precipitation series to include the 1931–1996 period and be concordant over time. From the corresponding homogeneous series of data, we established precipitation anomaly series, both on the seasonal and annual scale, for each of the weather stations analysed. In each case we made use of the annual or seasonal mean precipitation for the 1961–1990 period.

A 1° × 1° latitude/longitude grid of the region was established. At the centre of each cell we determined the annual and seasonal precipitation series, representative of the precipitation, following the methodology of Jones et al. (1982). From these series, by repeating this process, the seasonal and annual series representative of the whole region were established.

Analysis of the temporal behaviour of the precipitation, both annual and seasonal, in the study zone was accomplished using these series of regional anomalies. In each case we applied the methodology necessary for determining and assessing possible trends. The results show that at a confidence level of 95% no trends exist. At lower confidence levels, there were signs of a possible decreasing trend, with the exception of autumn, both for the complete period (1945–1996) and for the 1972–1996 subperiod. These signs seem to be corroborated by the behaviour of the 30-year running mean series. Furthermore, the correlation between precipitation and the mean pressures recorded in the zone also supports the possible existence in recent decades of a decreasing trend in the total annual and seasonal precipitation recorded in Castilla and León.


Precipitation Anomaly Seasonal Precipitation Precipitation Series Study Zone Pressure Anomaly 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brunet, M., Aguilar, E., Saladie, O., Sigró, J., and López, D., 1999: Variaciones y tendencias contemporáneas de la temperatura máxima y mínima y amplitud térmica diaria en el NE de España. In La Climatología española en los albores del siglo XXI. (J.M. Raso, y J. Martín- Vide, Eds.), Publicaciones de la A.E.C. Serie A, n° 1. 113–122.Google Scholar
  2. Corte-Real, J., Quian, B. and Xu, H., 1998: Regional Climatic Change in Portugal: Precipitation variability associated with long-scale Atmospheric Circulation. Int. J. of Climatology 18, 619–635.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Esteban-Parra, M.J., Rodrigo, F.S. and Castro, Y., 1995: Temperature trends and change points in the Nrthern Spanish Plateau during the last 100 years. Int. J. of Climatology 15, 1031–1042.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Hanssen-Bauer, L., Forland, E.J. and Tveito, O.E., 1995: Trends and variability in annual precipitation in Norway. In: DNMI-Report KLIMA 27/95.Google Scholar
  5. Hanssen-Bauer, I., Forland, E.J., Tveito, O.E. and Nordli, P.O., 1997: Estimating regional precipitation trends. Comparison of two methods. Nordic Hydrol. 28, 21–36.Google Scholar
  6. Jones, P.D., Wigley, M.L. and Kelly, P.M., 1982: Variations in surface air temperature: Part 1. Northern Hemisphere, 1881–1990. Mon. Weather Rev., 110, 59–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Jones, P.D., 1988: Hemispheric surface air temperature: Recent trends and update to 1987. In J. of Climate 1, 654–660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Jones, P.D. and Hulme, M., 1996: Calculating Regional Climate Time Series for temperature and precipitation: Methods and Illustrations. Int. J. of Climatology 16, 361–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kadioglu, M., 1997: Trends in surface air temperature data over Turkey. Int. J. of Climatology 17, 511–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Karl, Th.R., Knight, R.W. and Christy, J.R., 1994: Global and Hemispheric Temperature Trends: Uncertities Related to Inadequate Spatial Sampling. J. of Climate 7, 1144–1163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Labajo, J.L., Piorno, A. and Izquierdo, M.J., 1995: Determinación de la tendencia de la presión atmosférica y su relación con la precipitación en Salamanca (Matacán). In Situaciones de Riesgo climático en España. Actas de la II Reunión del Grupo de Climatología de la A.G.E., (J. Creus ed.) Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología. Jaca, Huesca. 305–316.Google Scholar
  12. Labajo, J.L., Piorno, A. and Izquierdo M.J., 1998: Temporal behaviour of the annual mean pressure on the Northern Spanish Plateau between 1945 and 1994. Int. J. of Climatology 18, 637–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Labajo, J.L and Piorno, A., 1999: Comportamiento de variables climáticas en Castilla y León: temperatura mínima media anual. In: La Climatología española en los albores del siglo XXI. (J.M. Raso, y J. Martin-Vide, Eds.), Publicaciones de la A.E.C. Serie A, n°l, 259–266.Google Scholar
  14. Minetti, J.L. and Vargas, W.M., 1997: Trends and jumps in the annual precipitation in South America, south of the 15°S. Atmósfera 11, 205–221Google Scholar
  15. Oñate, J.J. and Pou, A., 1996: Temperature variations in Spain since 1901: A preliminary analysis. Int. J. of Climatology 16, 805–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Piervitali, E., Colacino, M., and Vonte, M., 1998: Rainfall over the Central-Wesrern Mediterranean basin in the period 1951–1995. Part I: precipitation trends. Nuovo Cimento, 21C (3) , 331–344.Google Scholar
  17. Schönwise, CD., Rapp, J., Fuchs, T. and Denhard, M., 1994: Observed climate trends in Europe 1891–1990. Meteorol. Zeitschirft 3, 22–28.Google Scholar
  18. Sneyers, R., 1975: Sobre el análisis estadístico de las series de observaciones. OMM Nota Técnica 143. OMM-N°415. Geneva. 192 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Türkes, M., 1996: Spatial and temporal analysis of annual rainfall variations in Turkey. Int. J. of Climatology 16. 1057–1076CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Vinnikov, K.Ya., Groisman, P. Ya. and Lugina, K.M., 1990: The empirical data on modern global climate changes (temperature and precipitation). J. of Climate 3, 662–677.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jose Luis Labajo
    • 1
  • Antonio Piorno
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of General and Atmospheric PhysicsUniversity of SalamancaSpain

Personalised recommendations