Optical Studies of Covalently Linked C60 Solids

  • A. M. Rao
  • P. C. Eklund
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 38)

Abstract

In 1985, Smalley, Kroto and co-workers [1] discovered the all-carbon C 2n cage molecules, or “fullerenes” in carbon soot formed by laser vaporization of a rotating graphite target in an inert atmosphere (for a review see [2]). Subsequent discovery in 1990 to mass produce some of these molecules (e.g., C60 (Fig. 4.1a) and C70 (Fig. 4.1b)) in a carbon soot produced by striking an AC electric arc between two carbon electrodes in a He atmosphere [3, 4] has lead to considerable interdisciplinary research activity to understand the molecular and solid state properties of these beautifully symmetric molecules.

Keywords

Quartz Graphite Cage Toluene Hexagonal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    H. W. Kroto, et al.: Nature 318, 162 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. S. Dresselhaus, G. Dresselhaus, P. C. Eklund: Science of Fullerenes and Carbon Nanotubes, (Academic press, New York, 1996).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    R. E. Haufler, et al.: J. Phys. Chem. 94 8634 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    W. Kratschmer, et al.: Nature 347, 354 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    R. Taylor, et al.: J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 20, 1423 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    R. D. Johnson, G. Meijer, D. S. Bethune: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 112, 8983 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    R. Tycko, et al.: J. Phys. Chem. (1991).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    R. D. Johnson, D. S. Bethune, C. S. Yannoni: Acc. Chem. Res. 25,169 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. Taylor, D. R. M. Walton: Nature 363, 685 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    P. J. Fagan, J. C. Calabrese, B. Malone: Acc. Chem. Res. 25(3), 134 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. M. Hawkins: Acc. Chem. Res. 25, 150 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    F. Wudl: Acc. Chem. Res. 25, 157 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Wang, et al.: Nature 387, 583 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    A.M. Rao, et al.: Science 259, 955 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    H. Kuzmany and J. Winter: Fullerene Polymers and Fullerene Polymer Composites (Springer Verlag).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Pekker, et al. : Science 265, 1077 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    P. W. Stephens, et al.: Nature 370 636 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    O. Chauvet, et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2721 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    G. Oszlanyi, et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett 78, 4438 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Y. Iwasa, et al.: Science 264, 1570 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Nunez-Regueiro: Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 278 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. E. Kozlov and K. Yakushi: J. Phys. Condens. Matter 7, L209 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. Oszlanyi and L. Forro: Solid State Commun. 93, 265 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    I. O. Bashkin: J. Phys. Condens. Matter 6, 7491 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Q. Zhu, et al.: Phys. Rev. B52, R723 (1995).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Y. B. Zhao, et al.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 577 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    N. Takahashi, et al.: J. Appl. Phys. 74, 5790 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    T. Tsubo and K. Nasu: Solid State Commun. 91, 907 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    T. Tsubo and K. Nasu: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34, 261 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    P. A. Heiney, et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2911 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    P. Heiney, et al.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 53, 1333 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    W. I. F. David, et al.: Europhys. Lett. 18, 219 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    R. Tycko, et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1886 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    W. I. F. David, et al.: Nature 353 (1991).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    A. F. Hebard, Physics Today 45, 26 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G. Dresselhaus, M. S. Dresselhaus, P.C. Eklund: Phys. Rev. B45, 6923 (1992).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    C.I. Frum: Chem. Phys. Lett. 176, 504 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    P. C. Eklund, et al.: Thin Film Solids 257 185 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    A.M. Rao, et al.: J. Mat. Res. 8, 2277 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    C. C. Eloi, et al.: J. Mat. Res. 8, 3085 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    P. C. Eklund, et al.: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 53, 1391 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    F. Negri, G. Orlandi, F. Zerbetto: Chem. Phys. Lett. 144, 31 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    R. E. Stanton and M.D. Newton: J. Phys. Chem. 92, 2141 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. A. Jishi, R. M. Mirie, M. S. Dresselhaus: Phys. Rev. B 45, 13685 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    G. B. Adams, et al.: Phys. Rev. B50, 17471 (1994).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    D. Porezag, et al.: Phys. Rev. B52, 14963 (1995).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    S. J. Duclos, et al.: Solid State Comm. 80, 481 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    T. Pagnier, M. Barral, G. Lucazeau: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 58, 185 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    P. Zhou, et al.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 211, 337 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Y. Wang, et al.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 217, 413 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    K.-A. Wang, et al.: Phys. Rev. B48, 11375 (1993).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    S. Guha, et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 3359 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    K. Venkatesan and V. Ramamurthy: Photochemistry in organized and Constrained media. Vol. Ch. 4. (VCH, New York, 1991), 133.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    S. J. Hoke, et al.: J. Org. Chem. 57, 5069 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Goze, et al.: Phys. Rev. B54, R3676 (1996).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    D. S. Cornett, et al.: J. Phys. Chem. 97, 5036 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Hassanien, et al.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 417 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Y. Wang, et al.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 211, 341 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    J. Onoe and K. Takeuchi: Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2987 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. Menon, K. R. Subbaswamv, M. Sawtarie: Phys. Rev. B49, 13966 (1994).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    D. L. Strout, et al.: Chem Phys. Lett. 214, 576 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    P. W. Stephens, private communication.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    G. P. Lopinski, J. R. Fox, J. S. Lannin: Chem. Phys. Lett. 239, 107 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    A. M. Rao, et al.: Chem. Phys. Lett. 224, 106 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    O. Bethoux: Proceedings of the Materials Research Society, Boston, 1993, Abstract No. G2.9: p. 202.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Y. Iwasa: in Optical Properties of Low Dimensional Materials, T. Ogawa and Y. Kanemitsu (Eds.), (World Scientific, Singapore, 1995).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    S. G. Louie and E. L. Shirley: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1767 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    E. L. Shirley and S. G. Louie: Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 133 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    K. Harigaya and S. Abe, (unpublished).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    K. Harigaya: Fullerene Polymers and Fullerene Polymer Composites, Chapter 9 in this volume.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    E. L. Shirley, L. X. Benedict, S. G. Louie: Phys. Rev. B54, 10970 (1996).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    J. M. Holden: Ph.D thesis, University of Kemtucky, USA (1996).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    S. Jeglinski, et al.: Synth. Met. 557, 49 (1992).Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    S. Kazaoui, R. Ross, N. Minami: Phys. Rev. B52, 665 (1995).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    A. Nakamura, et al.: J. Lumin. 66–67, 383 (1996).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    S. L. Ren, et al.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2678 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    C. Kittel: Solid State Physics, (John Wiley and Sons).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Y. Wang, et al.: Phys. Rev. B45, 14396 (1992).Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    F. Wooten: Optical Properties of Solids, (Academic Press, New York, 1972).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    M. E. Kozlov, et al.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1199 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    M. Tachibana, H. Sakuma, K. Kojima: J. Appl. Phys. 82, 1 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    P. Zhou, et al.: Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2871 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    C. S. Yoo and W. J. Nellis: Science 254, 1489 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    J.-J. Hodeau, Phys. Rev. B50, 10311 (1994).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    C. S. Yoo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 273 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    H. Hirai: Carbon 31, 1095 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    M. Nunez-Regueiro: Nature 355, 237 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    F. Moshary: Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 466 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    C. H. Xu and G. E. Scuseria: Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 274 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    A. M. Rao: Appl. Phys. A, (1997).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    A. M. Rao, et al.: Phys. Rev. B55, 4766 (1997).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    P. C. Eklund, et al.: Thin Solid Films 257, 211 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    J. Winter and H. Kuzmany: Solid State Comm. 83, 1321 (1992).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Q. Zhu, et al.: Phys. Rev. B47, 13948 (1993).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    T. Yildirim, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1383 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    J. E. Fischer and P. A. Heiney: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 54, 1725 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    D. M. Poirier and J.H. Weaver: Phys. Rev. B47, 10959 (1993).Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    T. Tycko, et al.: Phys. Rev. B48, 9097 (1993).Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    M. C. Martin, et al.: Phys. Rev. B51, 3210 (1995).Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    G. Oszlanyi, et al.: Phys. Rev. B51, 12228 (1995).Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    D. Koller, et al.: Appl. Phys. Lett, (1995).Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    M. J. Rossiensky, et al.: Nature 356, 416 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    T. Yildirim, et al.: Nature 360, 568 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    W. Andreoni, et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 848 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. M. Rao
  • P. C. Eklund

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations