Manganese: Predominant Role of Nodules and Crusts

  • Geoffrey P. Glasby


The importance of manganese in the marine environment can be deduced from the fact that it is the tenth most abundant element in the earth’s crust (av. cone. 0.093%) and is available in two valency states whose stability boundary lies within the range of the natural environment (Glasby 1984). Manganese oxides also have a high adsorption capacity. 8Mn02, for example, has a surface area of about 260 m2 g-1 and a pHzpc of 2.25 and can therefore adsorb cations such as Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ from natural waters. By comparison, iron is the fourth most abundant element in the earth’s crust (av. cone. 5.17%) giving an average Mn/Fe ratio of 0.02. It also occurs in two valency states whose stability boundary lies within the range of the natural environment. Fe oxy-hydroxides have a high adsorption capacity and large surface area. Goethite has a pHzpc of 7.1 and can adsorb both cations and anions (e.g. REE, P, Mo, W etc.).


Sediment Column Oxygen Minimum Zone Ferromanganese Crust Manganese Crust Carbonate Compensation Depth 
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  • Geoffrey P. Glasby

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