Raman Applications in Catalysts for Exhaust-Gas Treatment

  • Willes H. Weber
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 42)

Abstract

Applications of Raman scattering in the characterization of materials used in the catalytic treatment of exhaust gases, both from vehicles and stationary sources, are reviewed. The primary materials used as supports in highly-dispersed precious-metal catalysts include alumina, silica, titania, zirconia, and ceria, and reference spectra are given for all of these as well as for the standard substrate material cordierite. Additional Raman spectra are given for most of the known oxides of the platinum-group metals, many of which are used in automotive catalysts. Raman scattering helps to elucidate the oxygen storage mechanism and in some cases the oxygen storage capacity of specific catalysts. Adsorbed oxides of both nitrogen and sulfur give characteristic Raman signatures, which are useful for identifying the interactions of various NO x and SO x species with different catalysts. Raman scattering is also used to quantify particle size, an important attribute for any surface-mediated process. Finally, three examples are cited that use the PdO Raman signal for quantitative analyses on Pd-containing catalysts.

Keywords

Combustion Titania Catalysis Hydrocarbon Propene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    G.T. Kerr: Sci. Am. 261, 100 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    R.R. Chianelli: In Catalysis and Surface Science, ed. by H. Heinemann, G.A. Somorjai ( Dekker, New York 1984 ) p. 61Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E.J. Vandenberg, J.C. Salamone (Eds.): Catalysis in Polymer Synthesis, ACS Symp.Ser. 496 ( Am. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C. 1992 )Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    I.E. Wachs (Ed.): Characterization of Catalytic Materials ( Butterworth-Heinemann, Manning, Greenwich, CT 1992 )Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    J.M. Stencel: Raman Spectroscopy for Catalysis ( Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York 1990 )Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. Knözinger: Catalysis Today 32, 71 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Dixit, D.L. Gerrard, H.J. Bowley: Appl. Spectrosc. Rev. 22, 189 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    I.E. Wachs, F.D. Hardcastle: Catalysis, Vol. 10 ( The Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge 1993 )Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    I.E. Wachs, F.D. Hardcastle, S.S. Chan: Spectrosc. 1, 30 (1986)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    I.E. Wachs: Catalysis Today 27, 437 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.R. Bartlett, R.P. Cooney: In Spectroscopy of Inorganic-Based Materials, ed. by R.J.H. Clark, R. E. Hester (Wiley, Chichester 1987) Chap. 3, p. 187Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. Mehicic, J.G. Grasselli: In Analytical Raman Spectroscopy, ed. by J.G. Grasselli, B J Bulkin (Wiley, New York 1991) Chap. 10, p. 325Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. Saidi, T.T. Tsotsis: Surf. Sci. 161, L591 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    L.T. Tsitsopoulos, T.T. Tsotsis: Surf. Sci. 187, 165 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    D. König, W.H. Weber, B.D. Poindexter, J.R. McBride, G.W. Graham, K. Otto: Catal. Lett. 29, 329 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    G. Haas, R.U. Franz, H.H. Rotermund, R.M. Tromp, G. Ertl: Surf. Sci. 352–354, 1003 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    H.H. Rotermund: Surf. Sci. 386, 10 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    G.W. Graham, D. König, B.D. Poindexter, J.T. Remillard, W.H. Weber: Top. Catal. 8, 35 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    F. Eisert, A. Rosén: Phys. Rev. B 54, 14061 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    W. Akemann, K.A. Friedrich, U. Linke, U. Stimming: Surf. Sci. 402–404, 571 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    M.A. Lovell, D. Roy: Appl. Surf. Sci. 135, 46 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J.T. Kummer: J. Phys. Chem. 90, 4747 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    K.C. Taylor: In Catalysis Science and Technology, Vol. 5, ed. by J.R. Anderson, M. Boudart (Springer, Heidelberg, Berlin 1984) Chap. 2, p. 119Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    P.-P. Knops-Gerrits, D.E. De Vos, E.J.P. Feijen, P.A. Jacobs: Microporous Mater. 8, 3 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. Brémard, D. Bougeard: Adv. Mater. 7, 10 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. Deo, F.D. Hardcastle, M. Richards, A.M. Hirt, I.E. Wachs: In Novel Materials in Heterogeneous Catalysis, ed. by R.T.K. Baker, L.L. Murrell, ACS Symp. Ser. 437, 317 (1990)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    A.A. Tsyganenko, P.P. Mardilovich: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 92, 4843 (1996)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Sohlberg, S.J. Pennycook, S.T. Pantelides: Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc., Advanced Catalytic Materials 1998, 165 (1999)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Yashima, H. Arashi, M. Kakihana, M. Yoshimura: J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 77, 1067 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    G. Vlaic, P. Fornasiero, S. Geremia, J. Kapar, M. Graziani: J. Catal. 168, 386 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    G. Mestl, T.K.K. Srinivasan: Catal. Rev. — Sci. Eng. 40, 451 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    I.E. Wachs, B.M. Weckhuysen: Appl. Catal. A 157, 67 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    K.B. Schwartz, C.T. Prewitt: J. Phys. Chem. Solids 45, 1 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    W.D. Westwood, C.D. Bennewitz: J. Appl. Phys. 46, 2313 (1974)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    M. Hecq, A. Hecq: J. Less-Common Met. 56, 133 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    J.R. McBride, G.W. Graham, C.R. Peters, W.H. Weber: J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1596 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    J.R. McBride, K.C. Hass, W.H. Weber: Phys. Rev. B 44, 5016 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    K. Otto, W.H. Weber, G.W. Graham, J.Z. Shyu: Appl. Surf. Sci. 37, 250 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    G.W. Graham, W.H. Weber, K. Otto: Appl. Surf. Sci. 59, 87 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    O. Muller, R. Roy: J. Less-Common Met. 16, 129 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    D. Cahen, J.A. Ibers, J.B. Wagner, Jr.: Inorg. Chem. 13, 1377 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    K.B. Schwartz, C.T. Prewitt, R.D. Shannon, L.M. Corliss, L.M. Hastings, B.L. Chamberland: Acta Cryst. B 38, 363 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    G.W. Graham, W.H. Weber, J.R. McBride, C.R. Peters: J. Raman Spectrosc. 22, 1 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    D. Cahen, J.A. Ibers: J. Catal. 31, 369 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    R.D. Shannon, T.E. Gier, P.F. Carcia, P.E. Bierstedt, R.B. Flippen, A.J. Vega: Inorg. Chem. 21, 3372 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    W.H. Weber, G.W. Graham, A.E. Chen, K.C. Hass, B.L. Chamberland: Solid State Commun 106, 95 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    W.H. Weber, G.W. Graham, J.R. McBride: Phys. Rev. B 42, 10969 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    R.Q. Wu, W.H. Weber: J. Phys. C (to appear)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Y.S. Huang, S.S. Lin, C.R. Huang, M.C. Lee, T.E. Dann, F.Z. Chien: Solid State Commun. 70, 517 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    K.C. Taylor, J.C. Schlatter: J. Catal. 63, 53 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    G. Kliche: Z. Naturforsch. 44a, 169 (1989)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    K.C. Hass, A.E. Carlsson: Phys. Rev. B 46, 4246 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    K.-T. Park, D.L. Novikov, V.A. Gubanov, A.J. Freeman: Phys. Rev. B 49, 4425 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    R. Ahuja, S. Auluck, B. Johansson, M.A. Khan: Phys. Rev. B 50, 2128 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    W.H. Weber, J.T. Remillard, J.R. McBride, D.E. Aspnes: Phys. Rev. B 46, 15085 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    S.S. Chan, A.T. Bell: J. Catal. 89, 433 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    R.W. McCabe, R.K. Usmen: In Proc. 11th International Congress on Catalysis — 40th Anniversary, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, Vol. 101, ed. by J.W. Hightower, W.N. Delgass, E. Iglesia, A. T. Bell ( Elsevier Science, Amsterdam 1996 ) p. 355Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    J.T. Remillard, W.H. Weber, J.R. McBride, R.E. Soltis: J. Appl. Phys. 71, 4515 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. Shelef, G.W. Graham: Catal. Rev. — Sci. Eng. 36, 433 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    J.M.D. Coey: Acta Crystallogr. B 26, 1876 (1970)Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    A. Wold, R.J. Arnott, W.J. Croft: Inorg. Chem. 2, 972 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    W.H. Weber, R.J. Baird, G.W. Graham: J. Raman Spectrosc. 19, 239 (1988)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    D.B. Rogers, R.D. Shannon, A.W. Sleight, J.L. Gillson: Inorg. Chem. 8, 841 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    O. Muller, R. Roy: J. Less-Common Met. 19, 209 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    S. Trasatti: Electrochim. Acta 36, 225 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    T. Kawai, T. Sakata: Chem. Phys. Lett. 72, 87 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. Shelef, H.S. Gandhi: Platinum Mater. Rev. 18, 2 (1974)Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    H.S. Gandhi, H.K. Stepien, M. Shelef: Mater. Res. Bull. 10, 837 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Y.S. Huang, F.H. Pollak: Solid State Commun. 43, 921 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    S.S. Rosenblum, W.H. Weber, B.L. Chamberland: Phys. Rev. B 56, 529 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    J. Haines, J.M. Leger: Phys. Rev. B 48, 13344 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    R.D. Shannon, D.B. Rogers, C.T. Prewitt: Inorg. Chem. 10, 713 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. C.T. Prewitt, R.D. Shannon, D.B. Rogers: Inorg. Chem. 10, 719 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 73.
    R.J. Baird, G.W. Graham, W.H. Weber: Oxid. Met. 29, 435 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. G.W. Graham, T.J. Potter, W.H. Weber, H.S. Gandhi: Oxid. Met. 29, 487 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 74.
    H.R. Hoekstra, S. Siegel, F.X. Gallagher: Adv. Chem. Ser. 98, 39 (1971)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 75.
    K.B. Schwartz, J.B. Parise, C.T. Prewitt, R.D. Shannon: Acta Crystallogr. B 39, 217 (1983)Google Scholar
  78. 76.
    R.W. McCabe, J.M. Kisenyi: Chemistry and Industry, 7 August 1995, p. 605Google Scholar
  79. 77.
    H.C. Yao, Y.F. Yao: J. Catal. 86, 254 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 78.
    Y.F. Yao, J.T. Kummer: J. Catal. 106, 307 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 79.
    J.C. Summers, S. Ausen: J. Catal. 58, 131 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 80.
    J.G. Nunan, H.G. Robota, M.J. Cohon, S.A. Bradley: J. Catal. 133, 309 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 81.
    L.L. Murrell, S.J. Tauster, D.R. Anderson: Studies in Surf. Sci. and Catal. 71, 275 (1991)Google Scholar
  84. 82.
    M. Ricken, J. Nölting, I. Riess: J. Solid State Chem. 54, 89 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 83.
    V. Perrichon, A. Laachir, G. Bergeret, R. Fréty, L. Tournayan, O. Touret: J. Chem. Soc., Faraday Trans. 90, 773 (1994)Google Scholar
  86. 84.
    T. Miki, T. Ogawa, M. Haneda, N. Kakuta, A. Ueno, S. Tatieshi, S. Matsuura, M. Sato: J. Phys. Chem. 94, 6464 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 85.
    B.K. Cho: J. Catal. 131, 74 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 86.
    E. Zintl, U. Croatto: Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 242, 79 (1939)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 87.
    J.R. McBride, K.C. Hass, B. D. Poindexter, W.H. Weber: J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2435 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 88.
    P. Vidmar, P. Fornasiero, J. Kagpar, G. Gubitosa, M. Graziani: J. Catal. 171, 160 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 89.
    J.Z. Shyu, W.H. Weber, H.S. Gandhi: J. Phys. Chem. 92, 4964 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 90.
    M.S. Brogan, T.J. Dines, J.A. Cairns: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 90, 1461 (1994)Google Scholar
  93. 91.
    K. Otto, C.P. Hubbard, W.H. Weber, G.W. Graham: Appl. Catal. B 1, 317 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 92.
    S.C. Su, J.N. Carstens, A.T. Bell: J. Catal. 176, 125 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 93.
    M. Shelef: Chem. Rev. 95, 209 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 94.
    K.C. Taylor: Catal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 35, 457 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 95.
    V.I. Parvulescu, P. Grange, B. Delmon: Catal. Today 46, 233 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 96.
    I.E. Wachs, G. Deo, B.M. Weckhuysen, A. Andreini, M.A. Vuurman, M. De Boer, M.D. Amiridis: J. Catal. 161, 211 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 97.
    M.A. Vuurman, D.J. Stufkens, A. Oskam, G. Deo, I.E. Wachs: J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. 92, 3259 (1996)Google Scholar
  100. 98.
    R.P. Cooney, P. Tsai: J. Raman Spectrosc. 9, 33 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 99.
    D.D. Saperstein, A.J. Rein: J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2134 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 100.
    C. Li, P.C. Stair: Catalysis Today 33, 353 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 101.
    C. Li, P.C. Stair: In Proc. 11th International Congress on Catalysis — 40th Anniversary, Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, Vol. 101, ed. by J.W. Hightower, W.N. Delgass, E. Iglesia, A.T. Bell ( Elsevier Science, Amsterdam 1996 ) p. 881Google Scholar
  104. 102.
    S. Xie, G. Mestl, M.P. Rosynek, J.H. Lunsford: J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 10186 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 103.
    G. Mesti, M.P. Rosynek, J.H. Lunsford: J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9321 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 104.
    G. Mestl, M.P. Rosynek, J.H. Lunsford: J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 9329 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 105.
    G. Mesti, M.P. Rosynek, J.H. Lunsford: J. Phys. Chem. B 102, 154 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 106.
    M. Shelef, R.W. McCabe: Catalysis Today, in press (1999)Google Scholar
  109. 107.
    J. Twu, C.J. Chuang, K.I. Chang, C.H. Yang, K.H. Chen: Appl. Catal. B 12, 309 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 108.
    D. Spielbauer, G.A.H. Mekhemer, E. Bosch, H. Knözinger: Catal. Lett. 36, 59 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 109.
    T. Riemer, D. Spielbauer, M. Hunger, G.A.H. Mekhemer, H. Knözinger: J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 1181 (1994)Google Scholar
  112. 110.
    W.H. Weber, D. Uy, G.W. Graham, A. Dubkov: Proc. XVII International Conf. on Raman Spectrosc., Beijing, August 2000 (to appear)Google Scholar
  113. 111.
    H.-W. Jen, G.W. Graham, W. Chun, R.W. McCabe, J.-P. Cuif, S.E. Deutsch, O. Touret: Catal. Today 50, 309 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 112.
    H. Richter, Z.P. Wang, L. Ley: Solid State Commun. 39, 625 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 113.
    K.K. Tiong, P.M. Amirtharaj, F.H. Pollak, D.E. Aspnes: Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 122 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 114.
    I.H. Campbell, P.M. Fauchet: Solid State Commun. 58, 739 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 115.
    W.H. Weber, K.C. Hass, J.R. McBride: Phys. Rev. B 48, 178 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 116.
    F.H. Pollak: In Analytical Raman Spectroscopy, ed. by J.G. Grasselli, B.J. Bulkin (Wiley, New York 1991) Chap. 6, p. 137Google Scholar
  119. 117.
    G.W. Graham, W.H. Weber, C.R. Peters, R. Usmen: J. Catal. 130, 310 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 118.
    R.J. Nemanich, S.A. Solin, R.M. Martin: Phys. Rev. B 23, 6348 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 119.
    K. Nakamura, M. Fujitsuka, M. Kitajima: Phys. Rev. B 41, 12260 (1990)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 120.
    J.W. Ager, D.K. Veirs, G.M. Rosenblatt: Phys. Rev. B 43, 6491 (1991)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 121.
    M. Cardona: In Light Scattering in Solids II, Topics Appl. Phys. 50, 38 (1982)Google Scholar
  124. 122.
    G.W. Ford, W.H. Weber: Phys. Rep. 113, 197 (1984)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 123.
    W. Richter: Springer Tracts Mod. Phys. 78 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1976) p. 121 (Note that the formulas given on p.160 of this article for the incident field agree with our (6.2), but subsequent formulas differ, since this author neglects the multiple reflections of the Raman scattered field.)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Willes H. Weber

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations