Marine Organic Geochemistry: A General Overview

  • S. Pantoja
  • S. Wakeham
Part of the Environmental Science book series (ESE)


Organic geochemistry developed traditionally from the petroleum geologists’ need to find and extract petroleum, since a thorough understanding of the chemical principles involved in the origin, migration, accumulation and alteration of petroleum would greatly aid in its discovery. Early on it became clear that organic matter that has been transformed into petroleum and gas was largely of marine origin and was deposited in marine sediments. A more fundamental understanding of the processes of petroleum and gas generation required a better understanding of the cycling of organic matter in the ocean. Simultaneously, there has been increasing awareness of the important role of the ocean in mediating global-scale processes, notably global climate change through the ocean’s buffering capacity for atmospheric carbon dioxide. Further, marine sediments hold the record of past environments, and realistic interpretations of past earth history hinge on understanding the behavior of organic matter in the ocean. It thus becomes important to better characterize the biogeochemical cycles that influence the production and preservation of organic matter in the sea. The term biogeochemistry emphasizes the close linkage between biology, geology, and chemistry into a cross-disciplinary science that strives to define the relationship between the biosphere and the geosphere, and between living and non-living organic matter.


Sediment Trap Sedimentary Organic Matter Organic Geochemistry Lignin Phenol Dissolve Free Amino Acid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allard B, Templier J, de Leeuw JW (1998) Artifactual origin of mycobacterial bacteran. Formation of melanoidin-like artifactual macromolecular material during the usual isolation process. Org. Geochem 26: 691–703CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aluwihare LI, Repeta DJ, Chen RF (1997) A major biopolymeric component to dissolved organic carbon in surface seawater. Nature 387: 166–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arnosti C, Repeta DJ (1994) Extracellular enzyme activity in anaerobic bacterial cultures: Evidence of pullulanase activity among mesophilic marine bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 60: 840–846Google Scholar
  4. Arnosti C, Repeta DJ, Blough NV (1994) Rapid bacterial degradation of polysaccharides in anoxic marine systems. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58: 2639–2652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azam F (1998) Microbial control of oceanic carbon flux: The plot thickens. Science 280: 694–606CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bada JL (1972) The dating of fossil bones using the racemization of isoleucine. Earth Plan Sci Lett 15: 223–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bada JL, Schroeder RA (1972) Racemization of isoleucine in calcareous marine sediments: Kinetics and mechanisms. Earth Plan Sci Lett 15: 1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bada JL, Schroeder RA (1975) Amino acid racemization reactions and their geochemical implications. Naturwissenschaften 62: 71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bada JL, Luykendyk BP, Maynard JB (1970) Marine sediments: Dating by the racemization of amino acids. Science 170: 730–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bada JL, Protsch R, Schroder RA (1973) The racemization reaction of isoleucine used as a paleo-temperature indicator. Nature 241: 394–395CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Billen G (1991) Protein degradation in aquatic environments. In: Chróst RJ (ed) Microbial enzymes in aquatic environments. Springer-Verlag, New York, pp 123–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brassell SC (1993) Application of biomarkers for delineating marine paleoclimatic fluctuations during the pleistocene. In: Engel MH, Macko SA (eds) Organic geochemistry. Principles and applications. Plenum Press, New York, pp 699–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Button DK (1993) Nutrient-limited microbial growth kinetics: Overview and recent advances. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 63: 225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Callot HJ (1991) Geochemistry of chlorophylls. In: Sheer H (ed) Chlorophylls. CRC Press, Boca Raton, PP 339–364Google Scholar
  15. Canfield DE (1994) Factors influencing organic carbon preservation in marine sediments. Chem Geol 114: 315–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Canuel EA, Martens CS (1996) Reactivity of recently deposited organic matter: Degradation of lipid compounds near the sediment-water interface. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 60: 1793–1805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Conte MH, Volkman JK, Eglinton G (1994) Lipid biomarkers of the prymnesiophyceae. In: Green JC, Leadbetter BSC (eds) The haptophyte algae. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 351–377Google Scholar
  18. Cowie GL, Hedges JI (1984) Carbohydrate sources in a coastal marine environment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48: 2075–2087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cowie GL, Hedges JI (1992) Sources and reactivities of amino acids in a coastal marine environment. Limnol Oceanogr 37: 703–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cowie GL, Hedges JI (1994) Biochemical indicators of diagenetic alteration in natural organic matter mixtures. Nature 369: 304–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cowie GL, Hedges JI (1996) Degestion and alteration of the biochemical constituents of a diatom (Thalassiosira weissflogii) ingested by a herbivorous zooplankton (Calanus pacificus). Limnol Oceanogr 41: 581–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cranwell PA (1982) Lipids of aquatic sediments and sedimenting particles. Prog Lipid Res 21: 271–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. De Baar HJW, Farrington JW, Wakeham SG (1983) Vertical flux of fatty acids in the North Atlantic Ocean. J Mar Res 41: 19–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Degens ET, Mopper K (1976) Factors controlling the distribution and diagenesis of organic materials in marine sediments. In: Riley JP, Chester R (eds) Chemical oceanography. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  25. Deming JW, Baross JA (1993) The early diagenesis of organic matter: Bacterial activity. In: Engel MH, Macko SA (eds) Organic geochemistry. Plenum Press, New York, pp 119–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Dixon M, Webb EC (1964) Enzymes. Academic Press, London Edmunds KLH, Brassell SC, Eglinton G (1980) The short-term diagenetic fate of 5a-cholestan-3ß-ol: In situ radiolabelled incubations in algal mats. In: Douglas, AG, Maxwell JR (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry 1979. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 427–434Google Scholar
  27. Emerson S, Hedges JI (1988) Processes controlling the organic carbon content of open ocean sediments. Paleoceanography 3: 621–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Farrington JW, Tripp BW (1977) Hydrocarbons in western North Atlantic sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 41: 1627–1641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fenchel T, Blackburn TH (1979) Bacteria and mineral cycling. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Gagosian RB, Smith SO, Lee C, Farrington JW, Frew NM (1980) Steroid transformations in recent marine sediments. In: Douglas AG, Maxwell JR (eds) Advances in organic geochemistry 1979. Pergamon Press, Oxford, pp 407–419Google Scholar
  31. Gaskell SJ, Morris RJ, Eglinton G, Calvert SE (1975) The geochemistry of a recent marine sediment off northwest Africa. An assessment of source of input and early diagenesis. Deep-Sea Res 22: 777–789Google Scholar
  32. Gillan FT, Nichols PD, Johns RB, Savor HJ (1983) Phytol degradation by marine bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 41: 1423–1428Google Scholar
  33. Goni MA, Hedges JI (199oa) Cutin-derived CuO reaction products from purified cuticles and tree leaves. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54: 3065–3072Google Scholar
  34. Goni MA, Hedges JI (199ob) Potential applications of cutin-derived CUO reaction products for discriminating vascular plant sources in natural environments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54: 3073–3081Google Scholar
  35. Goni MA, Hedges JI (1990c) The diagenetic behavior of cutin acids in buried conifer needles and sediments from a coastal marine environment. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54: 3083–3093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Goni MA, Hedges JI (1992) Lignin dimers: Structures, distribution, and potential geochemical applications. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56: 4025–4043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goni MA, Nelson B, Blanchette RA, Hedges JI (1993) Fungal degradation of wood lignins: Geochemical perspectives from CuO-derived phenolic dimers and monomers. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57: 3985–4002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Goodwin TW, Mercer EI (1972) Introduction to plant biochemistry, Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  39. Haake B, Ittekkot V, Ramaswamy V, Nair RR, Honjo S (1992) Fluxes of amino acids and hexosamines to the deep Arabian Sea. Mar Chem 40: 291–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haddad RI, Martens CS (1987) Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin: 9. Sources and accumulation rates of vascular plant-derived organic material. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 51: 2991–3001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harradine PJ, Maxwell JR (1998) Pyrophaeoporphyrins c1 and c2: Grazing products of chlorophyll c in aquatic environments. Org Geochem 28: 111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harvey HR, Macko SA (1997a) Catalysts or contributors? Tracking bacterial mediation of early diagenesis in the marine water column. Org Geochem 26: 531–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Harvey HR, Macko SA (1997b) Kinetics of phytoplankton decay during simulated sedimentation: Changes in lipids under oxic and anoxic conditions. Org Geochem 27: 129–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Harvey HR, Tuttle JH, Bell JT (1995) Kinetics of phytoplankton decay during simulated sedimentation: changes in biochemical composition and microbial activity under oxic and anoxic conditions. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 59: 3367–3377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hedges JI (1992) Global biogeochemical cycles: Progress and problems. Mar Chem 39: 67–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hedges JI, Ertel JR (1982) Characterization of lignin by capillary gas chromatography of cupric oxide oxidation products. Anal Chem 54: 174–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hedges JI, Mann DC (1979a) The characterization of plant tissues by their lignin oxidation products. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43: 1803–1807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hedges JI, Mann DC (1979b) The lignin geochemistry of marine sediments from the southern Washington coast. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 43: 1809–1818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hedges JI, Oades JM (1997) Comparative organic geochemistries of soils and marine sediments. Org Geochem 27: 319–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hedges JI, Parker PL (1976) Land-derived organic matter in surface sediments from the Gulf of Mexico. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 40: 1019–1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hedges JI, Blanchette RA, Weliky K, Devol AH (1988a) Effects of fungal degradation on the CuO oxidation products of lignin: A controlled laboratory study. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 52: 2717–2726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hedges JI, Clark WA, Cowie GL (1988b) Organic matter sources to the water column and surficial sediments of a marine bay. Limnol Oceanogr 33: 1116–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Henrichs SM, Reeburgh WS (1987) Anaerobic mineralization of marine sediment organic matter: Rates and the role of anaerobic processes in the ocean carbon economy. Geomicrobiol J 5: 191–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ittekkot V, Deuser W, Degens ET (1984a) Seasonality in the fluxes of sugars, amino acids, and amino sugars to the deep ocean: Sargasso Sea. Deep-Sea Res 31: 1057–1069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ittekkot V, Deuser W, Degens ET (1984b) Seasonality in the fluxes of sugars, amino acids, and amino sugars to the deep ocean: Panama Basin. Deep-Sea Res 31: 1071–1083CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jorgensen NOG, Sondergaard M (1984) Are dissolved free amino acids free? Microb Ecol 10: 301–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Keil RG, Tsamakis E, Giddings JC, Hedges JI (1998) Biochemical distributions (amino acids, neutral sugars, and lignin phenols) among size-classes of modern marine sediments from the Washing ton coast. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 62: 1347–1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. King LL, Repeta DJ (1994) Phorbin steryl esters in Black Sea sediment traps and sediments: A preliminary evaluation of their paleoceanographic potential. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58: 4389–4399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. King LL, Wakeham SG (1996) Phorbin steryl ester formation by macrozooplankton in the Sargasso Sea. Org Geochem 24: 581–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kirk TK, Farrell RL (1987) Enzymatic combustion: The microbial degradation of lignin. Annu Rev Microbiol 41: 465–505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lee C (1992) Controls on organic carbon preservation: The use of stratified water bodies to compare intrinsic rates of decomposition in oxic and anoxic systems. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 56: 3323–3335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lee C, Cronin C (1982) The vertical flux of particulate organic nitrogen in the sea: Decomposition of amino acids in the Peru upwelling area and the equatorial Atlantic. J Mar Res 40: 227–251Google Scholar
  63. Lee C, Cronin C (1984) Particulate amino acids in the sea: Effects of primary productivity and biological decomposition. J Mar Res 42: 1075–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lee C, Wakeham SG (1988) Organic matter in seawater: Biogeochemical processes. In: Riley JP (ed) Chemical oceanography, vol IX. Academic Press, New York, pp 1–51Google Scholar
  65. Leeuw JW de, Baas M (1986) Early-stage diagenesis of steroids. In: Johns, RB (ed) Biological markers in the sedimentary record. Elsevier, New York, pp 101–123Google Scholar
  66. Leeuw JW de, Largeau C (1993) A review of macromolecular organic compounds that comprise living organisms and their role in kerogen, coal, and petroleum formation. In: Engel MH, Macko SA (eds) Organic geochemistry. Principles and applications. Plenum Press, New York, pp 23–72 Lehninger AL (1981) Biochemistry. Worth Publishers, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  67. Mackenzie AS, Brassell SC, Eglinton G, Maxwell JR (1982) Chemical fossils: The geological fate of steroids. Science 217: 491–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mayer LM (1993) Organic matter at the sediment-water interface. In: Engel MH, Macko SA (eds) Organic geochemistry. Plenum Press, New York, pp 171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. McCarthy M, Pratum T, Hedges J, Benner R (1997) Chemical composition of dissolved organic nitrogen in the ocean. Nature 390: 150–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meister A (1965) Biochemistry of the amino acids. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Mermoud F, Wünsche L, Clerc O, Gülacar FO, Buchs A (1984) Steroidal ketones in the early diagenetic transformations of ?5 sterols in different types of sediments. Org Geochem 6: 25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Mitterer RM (1993) The diagenesis of proteins and amino acids in fossil shells. In: Engel MH, Macko SA (eds) Organic geochemistry. Plenum Press, New York, pp 739–753CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Montani S, Okaichi T (1985) Amino acid variations in marine particles during sinking and sedimentation in Harima-Nada, the Seto Inland Sea. In: Sigleo AC, Hattori A (eds) Marine and estuarine geochemistry. Lewis Publishers, New York, pp 15–27Google Scholar
  74. Müller PJ, Suess E, Ungerer CA (1986) Amino acids and amino sugars of surface particulate and sediment trap material from waters of the Scotia Sea. Deep-Sea Res 33: 819–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Nishimura M (1978) Geochemical characteristics of the high reduction zone of stenols in Suwa sediments and the environmental factors controlling the conversion of stenols into stanols. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 42: 349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parsons TR, Stephens K, Strickland JDH (1961) On the chemical composition of eleven species of marine phytoplankton. J Fish Res Bd Canada 18: 1001–1016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Parsons TR, Takahashi M, Hargrave B (1984) Biological oceanographic processes. Pergamon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  78. Pedersen TF, Calvert SE (1990) Anoxia vs. productivity: What controls the formation of organic-carbon-rich sediments and sedimentary rocks? Amer Assoc Petrol Geol Bull 74: 454–466Google Scholar
  79. Prahl FG, Eglinton G, Corner EDS, O’Hara SCM (1984) Copepod fecal pellets as a source of dihydrophytol in marine sediments. Science 224: 1235–1237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Prahl FG, Ertel JR, Goni MA, Sparrow MA, Eversmeyer B (1994) Terrestrial organic carbon contributions to sediments on the Washington margin. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 58: 035–3048CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Philp RP, Calvin M (1976) Possible origin for insoluble organic (kerogen) debris in sediment from insoluble cell-wall materials of algae and bacteria. Nature 262: 134–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Repeta DJ, Gagosian RB (1984) Transformation reactions and recycling of carotenoids and chlorines in the Peru upwelling region (15° S, 175° W). Geochim Cosmochim Acta 48: 1265–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Richnow HH, Jenisch A, Michaelis W (1993) The chemical structure of macromolecular fractions of a sulfur-rich oil. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57: 2767–2780CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Santos V, Billett DSM, Rice AL, Wolff GA (1994) Organic matter in deep-sea sediments from the Porcupine Abyssal Plain in the north-east Atlantic Ocean. I. Lipids. Deep-Sea Res 41: 787–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sargent JR (1976) The structure, function, and metabolism of lipids in marine organisms. In: Malins DC, Sargent JR (eds) Biochemical and biophysical perspectives in marine biology, vol III. Academic Press, New York, pp 149–212Google Scholar
  86. Sargent JR, Henderson RJ (1986) Lipids. In: Corner EDS, O’Hara SCM (eds) The biological chemistry of marine copepods. Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp 59–108Google Scholar
  87. Sargent JR, Parkes RJ, Mueller-Harvey I, Henderson RJ (1987) Lipid biomarkers in marine ecology. In: Sleigh MA (ed) Microbes in the sea. Ellis Horwood, New York, pp 119–138Google Scholar
  88. Sarkanen K, Ludwig CH (eds) (1971) Lignins. Wiley Interscience, LondonGoogle Scholar
  89. Schlesinger WH (1997) Biogeochemistry. An analysis of global change. Academic Press, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  90. Schroeder RA, Bada JL (1973) Glacial-postglacial temperature difference deduced from aspartic acid racemization in fossil bones. Science 182: 479–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Sinninghe Damsté JS, de Leeuw JW (1993) Analysis, structure and geochemical significance of organically-bound sulfur in the geosphere: State of the art and future research. Org Geochem 16: 1077–1101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Smetacek V, Hendrikson P (1979) Composition of particulate organic matter in Kiel Bight in relation to phytoplankton succession. Oceanol Acta 2: 287–298Google Scholar
  93. Steinberg SM, Bada JL (1983) Peptide decomposition in the neutral pH region via the formation of diketopiperazines. J Org Chem 48: 2295–2298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Steinberg SM, Venkatesan MI, Kaplan IR (1987) Organic geochemistry of sediments from the continental margin off southern New England, U.S.A.–Part I. Amino acids, carbohydrates and lignin. Mar Chem 21: 249–265Google Scholar
  95. Summons RE (1993) Biogeochemical cycles. A review of fundamental aspects of organic matter formation, preservation and composition. In: Engel MH, Macko SA (eds) Organic geochemistry. Plenum Press, New York, pp 3–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sun M-Y, Lee C, Aller RC (1993) Laboratory studies of oxic and anoxic degradation of chlorophyll-a in Long Island sediments. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 57: 47–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Sun M-Y, Wakeham SG, Lee C (1997) Rates and mechanisms of fatty acid degradation in oxic and anoxic coastal marine sediments of Long Island Sound. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61: 341–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sun M-Y, Wakeham SG, Aller RC, Lee C (1998) Impact of seasonal hypoxia on diagenesis of phytol and its derivatives in Long Island Sound. Mar Chem 62: 157–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tanoue E, Handa N (1987) Monosaccharide composition of marine particles and sediments from the Bering Sea and northern North Pacific. Oceanol Acta 10: 91–99Google Scholar
  100. Tanoue E, Handa N, Sakugawa H (1982): Difference in chemical composition of organic matter between fecal pellet of Euphausia superba and its feed, Duniella tertiolecta. Trans Tokyo Univ Fish 5: 189–196Google Scholar
  101. Tegelaar EW, de Leeuw JW, Derenne S, Largeau C (1989) A reappraisal of kerogen formation Geochim Cosmochim Acta 53: 3103–3106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tissot B, Welte D (1984) Petroleum formation. Springer Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  103. Litman D (1976) Ecological competition between algae: Experimental confirmation of resource-based competition theory. Science 192: 463–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Valiela I (1995) Marine ecological processes. Springer-Verlag, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Venkatesan MI, Ruth E, Steinberg S, Kaplan IR (1987) Organic geochemistry of sediments from the continental margin off southern New England, U.S.A.–Part II. Lipids. Mar Chem 21: 267–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Volkman JK (1986) A review of sterol markers for marine and terrigenous organic matter. Org Geochem 9: 83–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Volkman JK, Maxwell JR (1986) Acyclic isoprenoids as biological markers. In: Johns RB (ed) Biological markers in the sedimentary record. Elsevier, New York, pp 1–42Google Scholar
  108. Volkman JK, Jeffrey SW, Nichols PD, Rogers GI, Garland CD (1989) Fatty acid and lipid composition of to species of microalgae used in mariculture. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 128: 219–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Wada E, Hattori A (1991) Nitrogen in the Sea: Forms, abundances, and rate processes. CRC Press, Boca Raton Wakeham SG (1989) Reduction of stenols to stanols in particulate organic matter at oxic-anoxic boundaries in seawater. Nature 342: 787–790Google Scholar
  110. Wakeham SG, Lee C (1989) Organic geochemistry of particulate matter in the ocean: The role of particles in oceanic sedimentary cycles. Org Geochem 14: 83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wakeham S, Lee C (1993) Production, transport, and alteration of particulate organic matter in the marine water column. In: Engel M, Macko S (eds) Organic geochemistry. Plenum Press, New York, pp 145–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Wakeham SG, Farrington JW, Gagosian RB (1984a) Variability in lipid flux and composition of particulate matter in the Peru upwelling region. Org Geochem 6: 203–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wakeham SG, Gagosian RB, Farrington JW, Canuel EA (1984b) Sterenes in suspended particulate matter in the eastern tropical North Pacific. Nature 308: 840–843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wakeham SG, Hedges JI, Lee C, Pease TK (1993) Effects of poisons and preservatives on the composition of organic matter in a sediment trap experiment. J Mar Res 51: 669–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Wakeham SG, Hedges JI, Lee C, Hernes PJ, Peterson ML (1997a) Molecular indicators of diagenetic status in marine organic matter. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 61: 5363–5369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wakeham SG, Hedges JI, Lee C, Peterson ML, Hernes PJ (1997b) Compositions and fluxes of lipids through the water column and surficial sediments of the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res II 44: 2131–2162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Wefer G, Suess E, Balzer B, Leibezeit G, Müller PJ, Lingerer CA, Zenk W (1982) Fluxes of biogenic components from sediment trap deployments in circumpolar waters of the Drake Passage. Nature 299: 145–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Westrich JT, Berner RA (1984) The role of sedimentary organic matter in bacterial sulfate reduction: The G model tested. Limnol Oceanogr 29: 236–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Wehmiller JF, Hare PE (1971) Racemization of amino acids in marine sediments. Science 173: 907–911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Whelan JK (1977) Amino acids in a surface sediment core of the Atlantic abyssal plain. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 41: 803–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Williams PM, Druffel ERM (1987) Radiocarbon in dissolved organic matter in the central North Pacific Ocean. Nature 330: 246–248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Wright RT, Hobbie JE (1966) Use of glucose and acetate by bacteria and algae in aquatic ecosystems. Ecology 47: 447–453CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Pantoja
  • S. Wakeham

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations