CpG Oligonucleotides as Immune Adjuvants
In recent years, it has become increasingly clear that effective vaccination strategies require activation of both the innate and the acquired arms of immune defenses. Vaccines comprising purified protein antigens have been found to induce little or no immune response unless the vaccine also contains components with the ability to activate antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Upon activation, the APCs upregulate their expression of costimulatory molecules such as B7–1 and B7–2, whose expression is essential for the optimal induction of acquired immune responses. Recent studies have demonstrated that many adjuvants have direct stimulatory effects on APCs.
KeywordsCostimulatory Molecule Antisense Nucleic Acid Aotus Monkey Immune Stimulatory Activity Deoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction
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