Rice Agriculture: Emissions

  • M. J. Shearer
  • M. A. K. Khalil


Rice agriculture has long been recognized as a major source of methane (CH4). Global budgets of methane have generally included emissions of about 100 Tg/yr (Tg = Teragrams, 1012 grams) from rice agriculture (with a range of 50–300 Tg/yr), constituting about 20% of emissions from all sources (range 14%–40%) (Ehhalt and Schmidt, 1978; Donahue, 1979; Khalil and Rasmussen, 1983; Blake, 1984; Bolle et al., 1986; Bingemer and Crutzen, 1987; Cicerone and Oremland, 1988; Warneck, 1988; Khalil and Rasmussen, 1990). The Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 1995) estimates a source of 60 Tg/yr (range 20–100 Tg/yr). We estimate that rice agriculture contributes some 330 ppbv to the present atmospheric burden of CH4 in the atmosphere, and may be responsible for some 20–30% of the increase of methane during the last century (Khalil et al., 1996).


Rice Straw Rice Field Methane Production Methane Emission Rice Paddy 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. J. Shearer
    • 1
  • M. A. K. Khalil
    • 2
  1. 1.Environmental Sciences & Resources ProgramPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA
  2. 2.Department of PhysicsPortland State UniversityPortlandUSA

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