Advertisement

Multijunction Solar Cells and Modules

  • Subhendu Guha
Part of the Springer Series in Materials Science book series (SSMATERIALS, volume 37)

Abstract

Significant progress has been made in improving the stable efficiency of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells and modules. This has been achieved through a better understanding of the effect of plasma chemistry and growth kinetics on material characteristics and incorporation of the material in optimum device configurations. The R&D results have now been translated to production, and amorphous silicon alloy photovoltaic products are now being used for a variety of applications ranging from consumer products to grid-connected large power systems. In this chapter, we discuss the science and technology of amorphous silicon alloy solar cells and modules.

Keywords

Solar Cell Fill Factor Tunnel Junction Back Reflector Conference Record 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 6.1
    D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 676 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 6.2
    R. C. Chittick, J. H. Alexander, and H. F. Sterling, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 77 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 6.3
    W. E. Spear and P. G. LeComber, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 810, 727 (1972).Google Scholar
  4. 6.4
    W. E. Spear and P. G. LeComber, Phil. Mag 33, 935 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 6.5
    W. E. Spear, P. G. LeComber, S. Kinmond, and M. H. Brodsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 105 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.6
    D. E. Carlson and C. R. Wronski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 28, 671 (1976).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 6.7
    J. Yang, A. Banerjee, and S. Guha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2975 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 6.8
    S. R. Ovshinsky, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-1 (Tokyo, Japan, 1984), p. 577;Google Scholar
  9. 6.8a
    P. Nath, K. Hoffman, J. Call, C. Vogeli, M. Izu, and S. R. Ovshinsky, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-3 (Tokyo, Japan, 1987), p. 395;Google Scholar
  10. 6.8b
    M. Izu, X. Deng, A. Krisko, K. Whelan, R. Young, H. C. Ovshinsky, K. L. Narasimhan, and S. R. Ovshinsky, in Conference Record of the Twenty Third IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1993 (IEEE, New York, 1993), p. 919;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 6.8c
    S. Guha, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 336, 645 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 6.9
    S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, K. Hoffman, S. Sugiyama, J. Call, S. J. Jones, X. Deng, J. Doehler, M. Izu and H. C. Ovshinsky, in Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1997 (IEEE, New York, 1997), p. 607.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 6.10
    A. Triska, D. Dennison, and H. Fritzsche, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 20, 392 (1975).Google Scholar
  14. 6.11
    R. A. Street, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York, 1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 6.12
    Amorphous Silicon and Related Materials, edited by H. Fritzsche (World Scientific, Singapore, 1988).Google Scholar
  16. 6.13
    W. Luft and Y. S. Tsuo, Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Alloy Deposition Processes (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993).Google Scholar
  17. 6.14
    J. C. Knights, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 38, 372 (1985).Google Scholar
  18. 6.15
    A. Gallagher, Annual Subcontract Report, 15 April 1986 June 1987, STR-211–3288, Solar Energy Research Inst., 1987.Google Scholar
  19. 6.16
    A. Matsuda and K. Tanaka, Thin Solid Films 92, 171 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 6.17
    A. Matsuda, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1029CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 6.18
    S. Guha, J. Yang, S. J. Jones, Y. Chen, and D. L. Williamson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1444 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 6.19
    S. Guha, K. L. Narasimhan, and S. M. Pietruszko, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 859 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 6.20
    D. V. Tsu, B. S. Chao, S. R. Ovshinsky, S. Guha, and J. Yang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1317 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 6.21
    C. C. Tsai, M. Stutzmann, and W. B. Jackson, Amer. Inst. of Physics Conf. Proc. 120, 242 (1984).Google Scholar
  25. 6.22
    H. Curtins, N. Wyrsch, M. Favre, and A. V. Shah, Plasma Chem. Plasma Process 7, 267 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 6.23
    A. Shah, U. Kroll, H. Keppner, J. Meier, P. Torres, and D. Fischer, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-9 (Tokyo, Japan, 1996), p. 267.Google Scholar
  27. 6.24
    S. Guha, X. Xu, J. Yang, and A. Banerjee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 595 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 6.25
    C. Saito, M. Sano, J. Matsuyama, M. Higasikawa, K. Ogawa, and I. Kajita, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-9 (Tokyo, Japan, 1996), p. 579.Google Scholar
  29. 6.26
    S. J. Fonash, Solar Cell Device Physics (Academic Press, New York, 1981).Google Scholar
  30. 6.27
    G. A. Swartz, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 712 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 6.28
    R. J. Schwartz, J. L. Gray, G. B. Turner, D. Kanani, and H. Ullal, in Conference Record of the Seventeenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1984 (IEEE, New York, 1984), p. 369.Google Scholar
  32. 6.29
    M. Hack and M. Shur, J. Appl. Phys. 59, 998 (1985).Google Scholar
  33. 6.30
    A. H. Pawlikiewicz and S. Guha, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-37, 403 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 6.31
    P. Sichanugrist, M. Konagai, and K. Takahashi, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 1155 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 6.32
    J. K. Arch, F. A. Rubinelli, J. Y. Hou, and S. J. Fonash, J. Appl. Phays. 69, 7057 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 6.33
    Q. Wang, R. S. Crandall, and E. A. Schiff, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p.1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 6.34
    L. Jiao, H. Liu, S. Semoushika, Y. Lee, and C. R. Wronski, Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York ibid, (1996), p. 1073.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 6.35
    K. Vasanth, M. Nakata, S. Wagner, and M. Bennett, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 297, 827 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 6.36
    M. Hack, S. Guha, and M. Shur, Phys. Rev. C 30, 6991 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 6.37
    M. Hack, S. Guha, and M. Shur, in AIP Conf. Proc. 120, 40 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 6.38
    D. L. Staebler, C. R. Wronski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 6.39
    Amorphous Silicon materials and Solar Cells, edited by B. L. Stafford (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991). Conf. Proc. 234.Google Scholar
  43. 6.40
    See, for example, Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. (1997).Google Scholar
  44. 6.41
    H. Dersch, J. Stuke, and J. Beichler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 456 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 6.42
    W. den Boer, M. J. Geerts, M. Ondris, and H. M. Wentinick, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 60, 268 (1984).Google Scholar
  46. 6.43
    S. Guha, J. Yang, W. Czubatyj, S. J. Hudgens, and M. Hack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 589 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 6.44
    D. L. Staebler, R. S. Crandall, and R. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 733 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 6.45
    S. Guha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 569 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 6.46
    M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, Phys. Rev. C 32, 23 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 6.47
    S. Yamasaki and J. Isoya, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 164166, 169 (1993).Google Scholar
  51. 6.48
    P. Stradine and H. Fritzsche, Phil. Mag. C 69, 121 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 6.49
    H. M. Branz, Solid State Comm. 105/6, 387 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 6.50
    R. Biswas, Q. Li, C. C. Pan, and Y. Yoon, Mater. Res. Symp. Proc. 467, 135 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 6.51
    R. Biswas and C. C. Pan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 371 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 6.52
    T. Kamei, N. Hata, A. Matsuda, T. Uchiyama, S. Amano, C. Tsukamoto, Y. Yoshioka, and T. Hirao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2380 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 6.53
    H. Fritzsche, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 467, 19 (1998).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 6.54
    T. Gotoh, S. Nonomura, M. Nishio, N. Masui, S. Nitta, M. Kondo, and A. Matsuda, in Proceedings of the 17th Conf Amer. Microcryst. Semiconductors, Budapest, 1997 (to appear).Google Scholar
  58. 6.55
    X. Xu, J. Yang, and S. Guha, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 60 (1996).Google Scholar
  59. 6.56
    Y. Kuwano, M. Ohnishi, H. Nishiwaki, S. Tsuda, T. Fukatsu, K. Enomoto, Y. Nakashima, and H. Tarui, in Conference Record of the Sixteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1982 (IEEE, New York, 1982), p. 1338.Google Scholar
  60. 6.57
    G. D. Cody and T. Tiedje, in Energy and the Environment, edited by B. Abeles, J. Jacobson, and P. Sheng (World Scientific, Singapore, 1991), p. 147.Google Scholar
  61. 6.58
    E. Yablonovitch and G. D. Cody, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED-29, 303 (1982).Google Scholar
  62. 6.59
    A. Banerjee and S. Guha, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1030 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 6.60
    A. Banerjee, J. Yang, K. Hoffman, and S. Guha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 472 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 6.61
    S. Guha, Optoelectronics 5, 201 (1990).Google Scholar
  65. 6.62
    B. Sopori (private communication).Google Scholar
  66. 6.63
    J. Morris, R. R. Arya, J. G. O’ Dowd, and S. Wiedeman, J. Appl. Phys. 67, 1079 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 6.64
    J. Kane, Photodetector with Enhanced Light Absorption, U.S. Patent No. 4,532,537 (30 July 1985).Google Scholar
  68. 6.65
    R. G. Gordon, J. Proscia, F. C. Ellis, and A. E. Delahoy, Sol. Energy Mater. 18, 263 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 6.66
    K. L. Chopra, R. C. Kainthla, D. K. Pandya, and A. P. Thakoor, Physics of Thin Films, Vol. 12 (Academic Press, New York, 1982).Google Scholar
  70. 6.67
    R. G. Gordon, AIP Conf. Proc. 394, 39 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 6.68
    R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1187 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 6.69
    R. A. Street, D. K. Biegelsen, W. B. Jackson, N. M. Jackson, and M. Stutzmann, Phil. Mag. C. 52, 235 (1985).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 6.70
    N. M. Amer and W. B. Jackson in Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 21, Part B, edited by J. Pankove (Academic Press, New York 1984), p. 93.Google Scholar
  74. 6.71
    Y. Tawada, K. Tsuge, M. Kondo, H. Okamoto, and Y. Hamakawa, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5273 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 6.72
    A. Catalano, R. V. D’ Aiello, J. Dresner, B. Faughman, A. Firester, J. Kane, H. Schade, Z. E. Smith, G. Schwartz, and A. Triano, in Conference Record of the Sixteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1982 (IEEE, New York, 1982), p. 1421.Google Scholar
  76. 6.73
    H. Tarui, T. Matsuyama, S. Okamoto, Y. Hishikawa, H. Dohjo, N. Nakamura, T. Tsuda, S. Nakanao, M. Ohnishi, and Y. Kuwano, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-3 (Tokyo, Japan, 1987), p. 41.Google Scholar
  77. 6.74
    B. Fieselmann and B. Goldstein, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 149, 441 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 6.75
    Y. M. Li, F. Jackson, L. Yang, B. F. Fieselman, and L. Russel, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 336, 663 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 6.76
    See, for example, A. Catalano in Amorphous & Microcrystalline Semiconductor Devices: Optoelectronic Devices, edited by J. Kanicki (Artech House, Norwood, MA 1991), p. 9.Google Scholar
  80. 6.77
    A. Catalano and G. Wood, J. Appl. Phys. 63, 1220 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 6.78
    S. Guha, J. Yang, P. Nath, and M. Hack, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 218 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 6.79
    S. Guha and J. Kulman, U.S. Patent No. 4,600,801 (15 July 1986).Google Scholar
  83. 6.80
    Y. D. Kruangam, K. Katoh, Y. Nitta, H. Okamoto, and Y. Hamakawa, in Conference Record of the Nineteenth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1987 (IEEE, New York, 1987), p. 689.Google Scholar
  84. 6.81
    C. Goldstein, C. R. Dickson, I. H. Campbell, and P. M. Fauchet, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2672 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 6.82
    R. Tsu, S. S. Chao, M. Izu, S. R. Ovshinsky, G. J. Jan, and F. H. Pollack, J. Phys. (France), C 4, 269 (1981).Google Scholar
  86. 6.83
    C. Nakatani, M. Yano, K. Suzuki, and H. Okaniwa, J. Non-Cryst. Solids, 5960, 827 (1983).Google Scholar
  87. 6.84
    Y. M. Li, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 297, 803 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 6.85
    T. Yoshida, K. Maruyama, O. Nabeta, Y. Ichikawa, H. Sakai, and Y. Uchida, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 149, 477 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 6.86
    K. Nomoto, Y. Takeda, S. Moriuchi, H. Sannomiya, T. Okuno, A. Yokota, M. Kaneiwa, M. Itoh, Y. Yamamoto, Y. Nakata, and C. Inoguchi, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-4 (Australia, 1989), p. 85.Google Scholar
  90. 6.87
    K. Hanaki, Y. Hattori, H. Nakabayashi, S. Yamaguchi, and Y. Hamakawa, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 148, 385 (1989).Google Scholar
  91. 6.88
    J. Yang, X. Xu, A. Banerjee, and S. Guha, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 6.89
    S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, T. Glatfelter, and S. Sugiyama, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-9 (Tokyo, Japan, 1996), p. 283.Google Scholar
  93. 6.90
    J. Yang, A. Banerjee, T. Glatfelter, K. Hoffman, X. Xu, and S. Guha, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fourth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1994 (IEEE, New York, 1994), p. 380.Google Scholar
  94. 6.91
    D. L. Williamson, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 377, 251 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 6.92
    R. R. Arya, A. Catalano, and R. S. Oswald, Appl. Phys. Lett. 49 (17), 1089 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 6.93
    J. Yang, A. Banerjee, S. Sugiyama, and S. Guha, Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria, 1998 (to be published).Google Scholar
  97. 6.94
    M. J. Williams, S. M. Cho, and G. Lucovsky, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 297, 759 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 6.95
    S. Guha, J. S. Payson, S. C. Agarwal, and S. R. Ovshinsky, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 9798, 1455 (1987).Google Scholar
  99. 6.96
    S. Aljishi, Z. E. Smith, and S. Wagner in Amorphous Silicon and Related materials, edited by H. Fritzsche (World Scientific, Singapore, 1989), p.887.Google Scholar
  100. 6.97
    Q. Wang, H. Antoniadis, E. A. Schiff, and S. Guha, Phys. Rev. C 47, 9435 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 6.98
    S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Pawlikiewicz, T. Glatfelter, R. Ross, and S. R. Ovshinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2330 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 6.99
    Y. Nakata, H. Sannomiya, S. Moriuchi, A. Yokota, Y. Inoue, M. Itoh, and H. Itoh, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 192, 15 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 6.100
    J. Zimmer, H. Stiebig, J. Folsch, F. Finger, T. Eickhoff, and H. Wagner, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 467, 735 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 6.101
    V. L. Dalai and G. Baldwin, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. 297, 833 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 6.102
    X. Xu, J. Yang, and S. Guha, in Conference Record of the Twenty Third IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1993 (IEEE, New York, 1993), p. 971.Google Scholar
  106. 6.103
    J. H. Hou, J. K. Arch, S. J. Fonash, S. Wiedeman, and M. Bennett, in Conference Record of the Twenty Second IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1991 (IEEE, New York, 1991), p. 1260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 6.104
    A. Banerjee, J. Yang, T. Glatfelter, K. Hoffman, and S. Guha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1517 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 6.105
    K. Hoffman and T. Glatfelter, in Conference Record of the Twenty Third IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1993 (IEEE, New York, 1993), p. 986.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 6.106
    S. Guha, J. Yang, A. Banerjee, T. Glatfelter, and S. Sugiyama, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (Barcelona, Spain, 1997), p. 2679.Google Scholar
  110. 6.107
    M. Konagai (private communication).Google Scholar
  111. 6.108
    Y. Hishikawa, K. Ninomiya, E. Maruyama, S. Kuroda, A. Terakawa, K. Sayama, H. Tarui, M. Sasaki, S. Tsuda, and S. Nakano, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fourth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1994 (IEEE, New York, 1994), p. 386.Google Scholar
  112. 6.109
    J. Xi, T. Liu, V. Iafelice, K. Si, and F. Kampas, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 336, 681 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 6.110
    R. E. I. Schropp (private communication).Google Scholar
  114. 6.111
    B. Rech, S. Weider, F. Siebke, C. Beneking, and H. Wagner, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 33 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 6.112
    E. Tarzini, A. Rubino, R. de Rosa, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (Barcelona, Spain, 1997), p. 570.Google Scholar
  116. 6.113
    K. C. Park, T. G. Kim, S. K. Kim, S. C. Kim, M. H. Hwang, J. M. Jun, and J. Jang, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 297, 767 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 6.114
    R. Platz, D. Fischer, C. Hof, S. Dubaii, J. Meier, U. Kroll, and A. Shah, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 51 (1996); B. Rech (private communication).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 6.115
    J. Yang and S. Guha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2917 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 6.116
    Y. M. Li, L. Yang, M. S. Bennett, L. Chen, F. Jackson, K. Rajan, and R. R. Arya, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 336, 723 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 6.117
    M. Sadamoto, H. Tanaka, N. Ishiguro, N. Yanagawa, and S. Fukuda, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-9 (Tokyo, Japan, 1996), p. 645.Google Scholar
  121. 6.118
    K. Nomoto, H. Saitoh, A. Chida, H. Sannomiya, M. Itoh, and Y. Yamamoto, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-7 (Nagoya, Japan, 1993), p. 275.Google Scholar
  122. 6.119
    R. R. Arya, L. Yang, M. Bennett, J. Newton, Y. M. Li, B. Fieselmann, L. Chen, K. Rajan, G. Wood, C. Poplawski, and A. Wilczynski, in Conference Record of the Twenty Third IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1993 (IEEE, New York, 1993), p. 790.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 6.120
    S. Guha, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-7 (Nagoya, Japan, 1993), p. 395.Google Scholar
  124. 6.121
    P. Maycock, PV News, February 1998.Google Scholar
  125. 6.122
    P. Nath, K. Hoffman, C. Vogeli, and S. R. Ovshinsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 986 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 6.123
    J. J. Hanak, E. Chen, C. Fulton, A. Myatt, and J. Woodyard, Proc. 8th. PV Res. Tech. Conf., NASA Conf. Pub. 2475, 99 (1986);Google Scholar
  127. 6.123a
    F. R. Jeffrey, D. P. Grimmer, S. Brayman, B. Scandrett, and M. Noak, AIP Conf. Proc. 394, 451 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 6.124
    K. Tabuchi, S. Fujikake, H. Sato, S. Saito, A. Takano, T. Wada, T. Yoshida, Y. Ichikawa, H. Sakai, and F. Natsume, in Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1997 (IEEE, New York, 1997), p. 611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 6.125
    C. Glatfelter, M. Lycette, E. Akkashian, and C. Hoffman, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 6.126
    B. Kroposki and R. Hansen, in Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1997 (IEEE, New York, 1997), p. 1359.Google Scholar
  131. 6.127
    Data obtained from tests done by Photocomm. Inc. at its Scottsdale, Arizona facility.Google Scholar
  132. 6.128
    M. Kondo, H. Nishio, S. Kurata, K. Hayashi, and Y. Tawada, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-9 (Tokyo, Japan, 1996), p. 557.Google Scholar
  133. 6.129
    M. Kameda, S. Sakai, Y. Hishikawa, S. Tsuda, and S. Nakano, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 6.130
    K. Fukae, C. Lim, M. Tamechika, N. Takehara, K. Saito, I. Kajita, and E. Kondo, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 6.131
    S. Guha, J. Yang, and A. Banerjee, Proceedings of the 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, Vienna, Austria, 1998 (to be published).Google Scholar
  136. 6.132
    A. Shah, J. Meier, H. Keppner, P. Torres, and D. Fischer, in Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1997 (IEEE, New York, 1997), p. 569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 6.133
    K. Yamamoto, M. Yoshimi, T. Suzuki, and A. Nakajima, in Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1997 (IEEE, New York, 1997), p. 575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 6.134
    H. Meiling, J. Bezemar, R. E. I. Schropp, and W. F.van der Weg, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 467, 459 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 6.135
    M. Heize, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. ibid 467, 471 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 6.136
    S. Sugiyama, X. Xu, J. Yang, and S. Guha, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 197 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 6.137
    K. F. Feenstra, C. H. M. van der Werf, E. C. Molenbroek, and R. E. I. Schropp, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 467, 645 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 6.138
    A. H. Mahan, J. Carapella, B. P. Nelson, R. S. Crandall and I. Baiberg, J. Appl. Phys. 69, 6728 (1991);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 6.138a
    A. H. Mahan and M. Vanecek, AIP Conf. Proc. 234, 195 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 6.139
    S. J. Jones, A. Myatt, H. Ovshinsky, J. Doehler, M. Izu, A. Banerjee, J. Yang, and S. Guha, in Conference Record of the Twenty Sixth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1997 (IEEE, New York, 1997), p. 659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 6.140
    S. Sugiyama, J. Yang and S. Guha, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 378 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 6.141
    A. H. Mahan, D. L. Williamson, and T. E. Furtak, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 467, 657 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 6.142
    For a recent review, please see, S. Guha, Curr. Opinion, in Sol. State & Mat. Sc. 2, 425 (1997).Google Scholar
  148. 6.143
    C. Yoshino, W. Futako, Y. Wasai, and I. Shimizu, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 335 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 6.144
    W. Futako and I. Shimizu, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 431 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 6.145
    S. R. Ovshinsky, Solar Energy materials and Solar Cells 32, 443 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 6.146
    M. Payne and S. Wagner, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 883 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 6.147
    V. Dalai, S. Kaushal, R. Girvan, S. Hariasra, and L. Sipahi, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 6.148
    G. Ganguly, C. Ikeda, I. Sakata, A. Matsuda, K. Kato, S. Iizuka, and N. Sato, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 347 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 6.149
    C. C. Chen, F. Zhong, and J. D. Cohen, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 581 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 6.150
    A. H. Mahan, E. Iwaniczko, B. P. Nelson, R. C. Reedy, Jr., R. S. Crandall, S. Guha, and J. Yang, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 6.151
    R. W. Collins, J. Koh, Y. Lu, S. Kim, J. S. Burnham, and C. R. Wronski, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fifth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1996 (IEEE, New York, 1996), p. 1035;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 6.151a
    C. N. Yeh, D. Han, Q. Wang, and Y. Q. Xu, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 420, 63 (1997);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 6.151b
    Y. Tang, R. Braunstein, C. von Roedern, and F. R. Shapiro, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 297, 407 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 6.152
    S. Bae and S. J. Fonash, in Conference Record of the Twenty Fourth IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference 1994 (IEEE, New York, 1994), p. 484.Google Scholar
  160. 6.153
    Y. Hishikawa, E. Maruyuma, S. Yata, M. Tanaka, S. Kiyama, and S. Tsuda, in Intl. Tech. Digest PVSEC-9 (Tokyo, Japan, 1996), p. 639.Google Scholar
  161. 6.154
    M. Zeman, J. H. van den Berg, L. L. A. Vostun, J. A. Willemen, J. W. Metselaar, and R. E. I. Schropp, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 467, 671 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 6.155
    P. Maycock, in Proceedings of the Fourteenth European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition (Barcelona, Spain, 1997), p. 869.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Subhendu Guha
    • 1
  1. 1.United Solar Systems Corp.TroyUSA

Personalised recommendations