Basic Procedures for Facilitation

  • Susan S. Adler
  • Dominiek Beckers
  • Math Buck


The basic facilitation procedures provide tools for the therapist to help the patient gain efficient motor function and increased motor control. Their effectiveness does not depend on having the conscious cooperation of the patient. These basic procedures are used to:
  • Increase the patient’s ability to move or remain stable.

  • Guide the motion by proper grips and appropriate resistance.

  • Help the patient achieve coordinated motion through timing.

  • Increase the patient’s stamina and avoid fatigue.


Muscle Contraction Therapeutic Goal Basic Procedure Therapeutic Exercise Synergistic Muscle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Chan CWY (1984) Neurophysiological basis underlying the use of resistance to facilitate movement. Physiother Can 36 (6):335–341Google Scholar
  2. Conrad B, Meyer-Lohmann J (1980) The long-loop transcortical load compensating reflex. Trends Neurosci 3:269–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Evarts EV, Tannji J (1974) Gating of motor cortex reflexes by prior instruction. Brain Res 71:479–494PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fischer E (1967) Factors affecting motor learning. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 46 (1):511–519Google Scholar
  5. Gellhorn E (1947) Patterns of muscular activity in man. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 28:568–574Google Scholar
  6. Gellhorn E (1949) Proprioception and the motor cortex. Brain 72:35–62PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Halvorson HM (1931) An experimental study of prehension in infants by means of systematic cinema records. Genet Psychol Monogr 10:279–289. Reprinted in: Jacobs MJ (1967) Development of normal motor behavior. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 46 (1):41–51Google Scholar
  8. Hammond PH (1956) The influences of prior instruction to the subject on an apparently involuntary neuromuscular response. J Physiol (Lond) 132:17P-18PGoogle Scholar
  9. Hislop HH (1960) Pain and exercise. Phys Ther Rev 40 (2):98–106PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Jacobs MJ (1967) Development of normal motor behavior. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 46 (1):41–51Google Scholar
  11. Johansson CA, Kent BE, Shepard KF (1983) Relationship between verbal command volume and magnitude of muscle contraction. Phys Ther 63 (8):1260–1265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kabat H (1947) Studies on neuromuscular dysfunction, XI: New principles of neuromuscular reeducation. Perm Found Med Bull 5 (3):111–123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Kabat H (1961) Proprioceptive facilitation in therapeutic exercise. In: Licht S Johnson EW (eds) Therapeutic exercise, 2nd edn. Waverly, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  14. Knott M, Voss DE (1968) Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation: patterns and techniques, 2nd edn. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Loofbourrow GN, Gellhorn E (1948) Proprioceptively induced reflex patterns. Am J Physiol 154:433–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Loofbourrow GN, Gellhorn E (1949) Proprioceptive modification of reflex patterns. J Neurophysiol 12:435–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Nashner LM (1977) Fixed patterns of rapid postural responses among leg muscles during stance. Exp Brain Res 30:13–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Partridge MJ (1954) Electromyographic demonstration of facilitation. Phys Ther Rev 34 (5):227–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Sherrington C (1947) The integrative action of the nervous system, 2nd edn. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  20. Voss DE, Ionta M, Meyers B (1985) Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation: patterns and techniques, 3rd edn. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  21. Webster’s Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (1984) Merriam-Webster, SpringfieldGoogle Scholar

Further Reading General

  1. Griffin JW (1974) Use of proprioceptive stimuli in therapeutic exercise. Phys Ther 54 (10):1072–1079PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Payton OD, Hirt S, Newton RA (eds) (1977) Scientific basis for neuro-physiologic approaches to therapeutic exercise: an anthology. Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar

Resistance, Irradiation and Reinforcement

  1. Hellebrandt FA (1958) Application of the overload principle to muscle training in man. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 37:278–283Google Scholar
  2. Hellebrandt FA, Houtz SJ (1956) Mechanisms of muscle training in man: experimental demonstration of the overload principle. Phys Ther 36 (6):371–383Google Scholar
  3. Hellebrandt FA, Houtz SJ (1958) Methods of muscle training: the influence of pacing. Phys Ther 38:319–322Google Scholar
  4. Hellebrandt FA, Waterland JC (1962) Expansion of motor patterning under exercise stress. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 41:56–66Google Scholar
  5. Moore JC (1975) Excitation overflow: an electromyographic investigation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 56:115–120PubMedGoogle Scholar


  1. Burg D, Szumski AJ, Struppler A, Velho F (1974) Assessment of fusimotor contribution to reflex reinforcement in humans. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 37:1012–1021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cavagna GA, Dusman B, Margaria R (1968) Positive work done by a previously stretched muscle. J Appl Physiol 24 (1):21–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Chan CWY, Kearney RE (1982) Is the functional stretch response servo controlled or preprogrammed? Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 53:310–324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ghez C, Shinoda Y (1978) Spinal mechanisms of the functional stretch reflex. Exp Brain Res 32:55–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan S. Adler
    • 1
  • Dominiek Beckers
    • 2
  • Math Buck
    • 2
  1. 1.ChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Rehabilitation Centre HoensbroekHoensbroekNetherlands

Personalised recommendations