Gait Training

  • Susan S. Adler
  • Dominiek Beckers
  • Math Buck


Walking is a major goal for most patients. Effective walking requires the ability to change direction and to walk backward and sideways as well as forward. Being able to go up and down curbs, climb stairs and hills, and open and close doors increases the utility of the activity. To be totally functional the individual should be able to get down onto the ground and back up to standing again.


Stance Phase Gait Cycle Swing Phase Heel Strike Weight Shift 
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Further Reading Posture Control and Movement

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  2. Gahery Y, Massion J (1981) Co-ordination between posture and movement. Trends Neurosci 4:199–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  4. Nashner LM (1982) Adaptation of human movement to altered environments. Trends Neurosci 5:358–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  6. Woollacott MH, Shumway-Cook A (1990) Changes in posture control across the life span — a systems approach. Phys Ther 70:799–807PubMedGoogle Scholar


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  2. Kettelkamp DB, Johnson RJ, Schmidt GL, et al (1970) An electrogoniometric study of knee motion in normal gait. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 52:775–790Google Scholar
  3. Lehmann JF (1990) Gait analysis, diagnosis and management. In: Krusens handbook of physical medicine and rehabilitation, Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 108–125Google Scholar
  4. Lehmann JF (1990) Lower extremity orthotics. In: Krusens Handbook of physical medicine and rehabilitation. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 602–646Google Scholar
  5. Mann RA, Hagy JL, White V, Liddell D (1979) The initiation of gait. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 61:232–239Google Scholar
  6. McFadyen BJ, Winter DA (1988) An integrated biomechanical analysis of normal stair ascent and descent. J Biomech 21:733–744PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Murray MP, Kory RC, Sepic SB (1970) Walking patterns of normal women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 51:637–650PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Murray MP, Drought AB, Kory RC (1964) Walking patterns of normal men. J Bone Joint Surg [A] 46:335–360Google Scholar
  9. Nashner LM (1976) Adapting reflexes controlling the human posture. Exp Brain Res 26:59–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. The Pathokinesiology Service and The Physical Therapy Department, Ranch Los Amigos Medical Center (1993) Observational Gait Analysis. Los Amigos Research and Education Institute Inc, Downey CAGoogle Scholar
  11. Smidt G (1990) Gait in rehabilitation. Churchill Livingstone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
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  15. Winter D (1989) The biomechanics and motor control of human gait. University of Waterloo Press, WaterlooGoogle Scholar
  16. Wittle M(1991) Gait analysis: an introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Susan S. Adler
    • 1
  • Dominiek Beckers
    • 2
  • Math Buck
    • 2
  1. 1.ChicagoUSA
  2. 2.Rehabilitation Centre HoensbroekHoensbroekNetherlands

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