Gel Actuators

  • J. P. Gong
  • Y. Osada
Part of the Macromolecular Systems — Materials Approach book series (MACROSYSTEMS)


Biological materials are usually composed of soft and wet materials in the body. This is in contrast with most industrial materials such as metal, ceramics, and plastics that are dry and hard. Seldom do we use soft materials except rubber-like elastomers (but they are not wet). A “soft and wet” material is important as biological materials, not only to construct the body but also for displaying their functions. Thus, the problem arises of how to design a mobile machine using soft and wet materials, or how to afford the soft material to make shape changes or to generate tensile stresses that can lead to motility without the requirement for a rigid structure.


Surfactant Molecule Sodium Sulfate Solution Volume Collapse Acrylic Acid Unit Chemical Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. P. Gong
  • Y. Osada

There are no affiliations available

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