Clustering and Unsupervised Classification

  • John A. Richards
  • Xiuping Jia


The successful application of maximum likelihood classification is dependent upon having delineated correctly the spectral classes in the image data of interest. This is necessary since each class is to be modelled by a normal probability distribution, as discussed in Chap. 8. If a class happens to be multimodal, and this is not resolved, then clearly the modelling cannot be very effective.


Cluster Centre Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Unsupervised Classification Iterative Optimization Spectral Classis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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References for Chapter 9

  1. M. R. Anderberg, 1973: Cluster Analysis for Applications. N.Y. Academic.MATHGoogle Scholar
  2. G.H. Ball and D.J. Hall, 1965: A Novel Method of Data Analysis and Pattern Classification. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, California.Google Scholar
  3. G.R. Coleman and H.C. Andrews, 1979: Image Segmentation by Clustering. Proc. IEEE, 67, 773–785.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. R.O. Duda and P.E. Hart, 1973: Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis. N.Y., Wiley.MATHGoogle Scholar
  5. J. A. Hartigan, 1975: Clustering Algorithms. N.Y., Wiley.MATHGoogle Scholar
  6. D. J. Kelly, 1983: The Concept of a Spectral Class — A Comparison of Clustering Algorithms. M. Eng. Sc. Thesis. The University of New South Wales, Australia.Google Scholar
  7. D.A. Landgrebe and L. Biehl, 1995: An Introduction to MultiSpec. West Lafayette, Purdue Research Foundation (∼biehl/MultiSpecGoogle Scholar
  8. P.A. Letts, 1978: Unsupervised Classification in The Aries Image Analysis System. Proc. 5th Canadian Symp. on Remote Sensing, 61-71.Google Scholar
  9. T.L. Phillips (Ed), 1973: LARSYS Version 3 Users Manual. Laboratory for Applications of Remote Sensing, Purdue University, West Lafayette.Google Scholar
  10. J. van Ryzin, 1977: Classification and Clustering. N.Y., Academic.Google Scholar
  11. R.C. Tryon and D.E. Bailey, 1970: Cluster Analysis, N.Y, McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Richards
    • 1
  • Xiuping Jia
    • 2
  1. 1.Research School of Information Sciences and EngineeringThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.School of Electrical Engineering University CollegeThe University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force AcademyCampbellAustralia

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