Data Fusion

  • John A. Richards
  • Xiuping Jia


Frequently the need arises to analyse mixed spatial data bases, such as that depicted in Fig. 1.13. Such data sets could consist of satellite spectral, topographic and other point form data, all registered geometrically, as might be found in a geographic information system.


Remote Sensing Data Fusion Maximum Likelihood Classification Specular Surface Graphic Information System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References for Chapter 12

  1. J. A. Benediktsson, J.R. Sveinsson and P.H. Swain, 1997: Hybrid Consensus Theoretic Classification. IEEE Trans. Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 35, 833–843.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. L. Bruzzone, C. Conese, F. Maselli and F. Roli, 1997: Multisource Classification of Complex Rural Areas by Statistical and Neural-Network Approaches. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing. 63, 523–533.Google Scholar
  3. M.J. Carlotto, V.T. Tom, P.W. Bairn and R.A. Upton, 1984: Knowledge-Based Multispectral Image Classification. SPIE Vol 504, Applications of Digital Image Processing VII, 45–53.Google Scholar
  4. M.C. Dobson, L.E. Pierce and F.T. Ulaby, 1996: Knowledge-Based Land-Cover Classification Using ERS-1/JERS-1 SAR Composites. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 34, 83–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. R. Frost, 1986: Introduction to Knowledge Base Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  6. T.D. Garvey, 1987: Evidential Reasoning for Geographic Evaluation for Helicopter Route Planning. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GE-25, 294–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. T.D. Garvey, J.D. Lowrance and M. A. Fisher, 1981: An Inference Technique for Integrating Knowledge from Disparate-Sources. Proc 7th Int. Conf. Artificial Intelligence, Vancouver, 319-325.Google Scholar
  8. M. Goldberg, D.G. Goodenough, M. Alvo and G. Karam, 1985: A Hierarchical Expert System for Updating Forestry Maps with Landsat Data. Proceedings of the IEEE, 73, 1054–1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. P. Gong, 1996: Integrated Analysis of Spatial Data from Multiple Sources: Using Evidential Reasoning and Artificial Neural Network Techniques for Geologic Mapping. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 62, 513–523.Google Scholar
  10. D.G. Goodenough, M. Goldberg, G. Plunkett and J. Zelek, 1987: An Expert System for Remote Sensing. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing. GE-25, 349–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. H.N. Gross and J.R. Schott, 1998: Application of Spectral Mixture Analysis and Image Fusion Techniques for Image Sharpening. Remote Sensing of Environment. 63, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. B. Kartikeyan, K.L. Majumder and A.R. Dasgupta, 1995: An Expert System for Land Cover Classification. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 33, 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. T. Lee, J. A. Richards and P. H. Swain, 1987: Probabilistic and Evidential Approaches for Multisource Data Analysis. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing. GE-25, 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. W.L. Moon, 1990: Integration of Geophysical and Geological Data Using Evidential Belief Function. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 28, 711–720.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. N.J. Mulder, H. Middlekoop and J. Miltenberg, 1988: Progress in Knowledge Engineering for Image Classification. 16th Congress of the International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, 27(III), 395–405.Google Scholar
  16. M. Nagao and T. Matsuyama, 1980: A Structural Analysis of Complex Aerial Photographs. Plenum, New York.Google Scholar
  17. B. Nicholin and R. Gabler, 1987: A Knowledge-Based System for the Analysis of Aerial Images. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing, GE-25, 317–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. D. Nute, 1988: Defeasible Reasoning: A Philosophical Analysis in Prolog, in Aspects of Artificial Intelligence. J.H. Fetzwer (Ed) Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. D. R. Peddle, 1995a: MERCURY ⊕: An Evidential Reasoning Image Classifier. Computers and Geosciences, 21, 1163–1176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D.R. Peddle, 1995b: Knowledge Formulation for Supervised Evidential Classification. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 61, 409–417.Google Scholar
  21. J.L. Pollock, 1974: Knowledge and Justification. N.J. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  22. J. A. Richards, D. A. Landgrebe and P.H. Swain, 1982: A means of utilizing ancillary information in multispectral classification. Remote Sensing of Environment, 12, 463–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. A.H. Schistad Solberg, A.K. Jain and T. Taxt, 1994: Multisource Classification of Remotely Sensed Data: Fusion of Landsat TM and SAR Images. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 32, 768–778.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. R. A. Schowengerdt, 1989: A General Purpose Expert System for Image Processing. Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 55, 1277–1284.Google Scholar
  25. P. S. Sell, 1985: Expert Systems — a Practical Introduction. Maxmilian, Southampton. G. Shafer, 1976: A Mathematical Theory of Evidence. NJ, Princeton UP.Google Scholar
  26. B. Solaiman, R.K. Koffi, M-C. Mouchot and A. Hillion, 1998: An Information Fusion Method for Multispectral Image Classification Postprocessing. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing. 36, 395–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. A. Srinivasan, 1990: An Artifical Intelligence Approach to the Analysis of Multiple Information Sources in Remote Sensing. PhD Thesis, The University of New South Wales, Kensington.Google Scholar
  28. A. Srinivasan and J.A. Richards, 1993: Analysis of GIS Spatial Data Using Knowledge-Based Methods. Int. J. Geographic Information Systems. 7, 479–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. A.H. Strahler, 1980: The Use of Prior Probabilities in Maximum Likelihood Classification of Remotely Sensed Data. Remote Sensing of Environment, 10, 35–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. J. Ton, J. Sticklen and A.K. Jain, 1991: Knowledge-Based Segmentation of Landsat Images. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 29, 222–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. F. Van Der Meer, 1997: What Does Multisensor Image Fusion Add in Terms of Information Content for Visual Interpretation? Int. J. Remote Sensing. 18, 445–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. S.W. Wharton, 1987: A Spectral Knowledge Based Approach for Urban Land Cover Discrimination. IEEE Trans Geoscience and Remote Sensing, 25, 272–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • John A. Richards
    • 1
  • Xiuping Jia
    • 2
  1. 1.Research School of Information Sciences and EngineeringThe Australian National UniversityCanberraAustralia
  2. 2.School of Electrical Engineering University CollegeThe University of New South Wales, Australian Defence Force AcademyCampbellAustralia

Personalised recommendations