Governments were the decisive players in the Kyoto process, as only they were competent to adopt the Kyoto Protocol. Their negotiating behaviour and positioning was not only influenced by the state of scientific knowledge, but also by their perceived or real interests. For example, dependence on production and use of fossil fuels varies greatly, building the basis of differing “polluter interests”. Also, countries’ vulnerability to the impacts of climate change varies, as does their interest in climate change mitigation and adaptation. The availability of affordable options to reduce GHG emissions and adapt to climate change is another crucial factor (“helper interest”) Finally, the players’ goals are also influenced by factors related only indirectly to climate change, e.g. cultural pre-determinations and institutional structures.1 These are the main elements of a country’s constellation of interests. A country dominated by polluter interests can be expected to be less enthusiastic about elaborating stringent action to curb GHG emissions. Countries greatly affected by the impacts of climate change and/or strong helper interests will lean more towards supporting such action, while others might be positioned in the middle ground.2
KeywordsEuropean Union Climate Policy Kyoto Protocol International Civil Aviation Organization International Climate Policy
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