Joint Fulfilment of Commitments (Article 4)

  • Sebastian Oberthür
  • Hermann E. Ott


With the inclusion of Article 4 into the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union achieved one of its major goals: the possibility to “bubble”. In combination with Article 3.1, Article 4 allows any group of Parties to jointly fulfil their commitments under the Protocol. It specifies that the combined assigned amounts in Annex B may be redistributed through internal agreement and notified to the Secretariat.


Member State Kyoto Protocol Emission Trading Emission Allowance Emission Trading System 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sebastian Oberthür
    • 1
  • Hermann E. Ott
    • 2
  1. 1.EcologicBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Wuppertal Institute for ClimateEnvironment and EnergyWuppertalGermany

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