Normative-Affective Factors: Toward a New Decision-Making Model

  • Amitai Etzioni
Part of the Studies in Economic Ethics and Philosophy book series (SEEP)

Abstract

Intellectual circles in Europe were preoccupied for more than a century shadow boxing with the ghost of Karl Marx, trying again and again to show that history is not dominated by economic or materialistic factors, that ideas matter. Similarly, social scientists and attending intellectuals, on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean, have been preoccupied — and still are — with extolling, questioning, and attempting to shore up the notion of Rational Man (or homo-economicus.) Indeed, even those who challenge this notion, often define their position in terms of various deviations from the rational model. This is evident in the frequent reference to their concepts as dealing with a residue realm, the “non-rational”, rather than some category that may itself be positively defined. Moreover, non-rationality is often confused with irrationality and tends to carry a negative connotation. “The trouble is that once one starts to talk about rationality, it preempts the way we organize our views of human thought and behavior. We tend to think always in terms of default from a standard...” (Abelson 1976, p. 61).

Keywords

Obesity Europe Income Assure Assimilation 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Bibliography

  1. Abelson, R.P.: “Social Psychology’s Rational Man”, in: S.I. Benn and G.W. Mortimore, (Eds.): Rationality in the Social Sciences, London (Routledge and Kegan Paul) 1976.Google Scholar
  2. Ajzen, Icek and Martin Fishbein: Understanding Attitudes and Predicating Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (Prentice-Hall ) 1980.Google Scholar
  3. Barnard, Chester: The Functions of the Executive, Cambridge, MA (Harvard Univ. Press ) 1947.Google Scholar
  4. Beckman, L.: “Effects of Students’ Performance on Teachers and Observers’ Attributions of Causality”, Journal of Educational Psychology, 61 (1970), pp. 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berelson, Bernard and Gary A. Steiner: Human Behavior: An Inventory of Scientific Findings, New York ( Harcourt, Brace and World ) 1964.Google Scholar
  6. Chaiken, Shelly and Charles Stanger: “Attitudes and Attitudinal Change”, To appear in the Annual Review of Psychology, 38 (1987).Google Scholar
  7. Davis, W.L. and D.E. Davis: “Internal-External Control and Attribution of Responsibil- ity for Success and Failure”, Journal of Personality, 40 (1972), pp. 123–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durkheim, Emile: The Division of Labor in Society, Glencoe, Illinois (Free Press ) 1947.Google Scholar
  9. Easterbrook, J.A.: “The Effect of Emotion on Cue Utilization and the Organization of Behavior”, Psychology Review, 66 (1959), pp. 183–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edwards, Ward: “The Theory of Decision Making”, Psychological Bulletin, 51 (1954), no. 4, pp. 380–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Elster, Jon, (Ed.) (1985a): The Multiple Self, Cambridge (Cambridge Univ. Press ).Google Scholar
  12. Elster, Jon (1985b): “Sadder but Wiser? Rationality and the Emotions”, Social Science Information, London and Beverly Hills (Sage), 24, pp. 375–406.Google Scholar
  13. Engel, James F. and Roger D. : Consumer Behavior, 4th edition, Chicago (The Dryden Press) 1982.Google Scholar
  14. England, G.W.: “Personal Value Systems of American Managers”, American Management Journal, 10:1 (March 1967),pp. 53–68.Google Scholar
  15. England, G.W. and R. Lee: “The Relationship Between Managerial Values and Managerial Success in the United States, Japan, India, and Australia”, Journal of Applied Psychology, 59: 4 (August 1974), pp. 411–419.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Etzioni, Amitai: “Mixed Scanning: A `Third’ Approach to Decision-Making”. Public Administration Review, 27: 5 (Dec. 1967), pp. 385–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Etzioni, Amitai: The Active Society, New York (The Free Press) 1968.Google Scholar
  18. Etzioni, Amitai: “The Case for a Multiple Utility Conception”, Economics and Philosophy, 2: 2 (October 1986), pp. 159–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Feather, N.T.: “Attribution of Responsibility and Valence of Success and Failure in Relation to Initial Confidence and Task Performance”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 13 (1969), pp. 129–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fellner, Carl H. and John R. Marshall: “Kidney Donors-The Myth of Informed Consent”, American Journal of Psychiatry, 126: 9 (1970), pp. 1245–1251.Google Scholar
  21. Festinger, Leon: A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance, Stanford, CA (Stanford Univ. Press ) 1957.Google Scholar
  22. Festinger, Leon: Conflict, Decision, and Dissonance, Stanford, CA (Stanford Univ. Press ) 1964.Google Scholar
  23. Fishbein, Martina and Icek Ajzen: Belief Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research, Reading, MA (Addison-Wesley ) 1975.Google Scholar
  24. Fitch, G.: “Effects of Self-Esteem, Perceived Performance, and Chance on Causal Attri- butions”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16 (1970), pp. 311–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Freize, I. and B. Weiner, “Cue Utilization and Attributional Judgments for Success and Failure”, Journal of Personality, 39 (1971), pp. 591–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Furnham, Adrian and Alan Lewis, The Economic Mind: The Social Psychology ofEconomic Behavior, Sussex (Wheatsheaf Books) 1986.Google Scholar
  27. Glueck, William F.: “Decision Making: Organization Choice”, Personnel Psychology, 27 (1974), pp. 77–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Goodin, Robert E.: “Making Moral Incentives Pay”, Policy Sciences, 12 (August 1980), pp. 131–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Heider, F.: The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations, New York (Wiley) 1958.Google Scholar
  30. Hirschman, Albert O.: “Against Parsimony: Three Easy Ways of Complicating Some Categories of Economic Discourse”, Bulletin: The American Academy of Arts and Sciences,37:8 (May 1984), pp. 11–28.Google Scholar
  31. Hoch, Irving: “Retooling the Mainstream”, Resources,80 (Spring 1985), pp. 1–4.Google Scholar
  32. Holsti, Ole R.: “Crisis, Stress, and Decision-Making”, International Social Science Journal, 23: 1 (1971), pp. 53–67.Google Scholar
  33. Holyoak, Keith J. and Peter C. Gordon: “Information Processing and Social Cogni-Normative-Affective Factorstion”. in: Robert S. Wyer, JR. and Thomas K. Srull (Eds.): Handbook of Social Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ (Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc) 1984.Google Scholar
  34. Isen, Alice M.: “Toward Understanding the Role of Affect in Cognition”, in: R. Wyer AND T. Srull (Eds.): Handbook of Social Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ (Erlbaum) 1984.Google Scholar
  35. Izard, C.E., J. Kagan, and R.B. Zajonc (Eds.): Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior, Cambridge ( Cambridge Univ. Press ) 1984.Google Scholar
  36. Izard, C.E.: Human Emotions, New York (Plenum) 1977.Google Scholar
  37. Janis, Irving and Leon Mann: Decision Making: A Psychological Analysis of Conflict, Choice and Commitment, New York (The Free Press) 1977.Google Scholar
  38. Johnson, T.J., R. Feigenbaum, and M. Weiby: “Some Determinants and Consequences of the Teacher’s Perception of Causation”, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55 (1964), pp. 237–246.Google Scholar
  39. Jones, E.E. and K.E. Davis: “From Acts to Dispositions: The Attribution Process in Person Perception”, in: L. berkowrrz (Ed.): Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 2, New York (Academic Press) 1965.Google Scholar
  40. Kahneman, Daniel AND Amos Tversky: “The Psychology of Preferences”, Scientific American, 246 (1982), pp. 160–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Katona, George: Psychological Economics, New York (Elsevier) 1975.Google Scholar
  42. Katz, D. and R.L. Kahn: The Social Psychology ofOrganizations, New York (Wiley) 1966.Google Scholar
  43. Kelly, Harold H.: “Attribution Theory in Social Psychology”, in: D. LEVINE (Ed.): Nebraska Symposium on Motivation: 1967, Lincoln (University of Nebraska Press) 1967, pp. 192–241.Google Scholar
  44. Kelley, Harold H. and John W. Thibaut: Interpersonal Relations: A Theory oflnterdependence, New York (Wiley) 1978.Google Scholar
  45. Kohlberg, Lawrence: Essays on Moral Development, San Francisco (Harper and Row) 1981.Google Scholar
  46. Kohlberg, Lawrence: Moral Stages: A Current Formulation and Response to Critics, New York (Karger) 1983.Google Scholar
  47. Korchin, Sheldon J.: “Anxiety and Cognition”, in: Constance Sheever, (Ed.): Cognition: Theory, Research, Promise, New York (Harper and Row) 1964.Google Scholar
  48. Kozielecki, Jozef: Psychological Decision Theory,Dordrecht, Holland (D. Reidel Publishing Company).Google Scholar
  49. Latane, B. and J.M. Darley: The Unresponsive Bystander: Why Doesn’t He Help, New York (Appleton-Century-Crofts) 1970.Google Scholar
  50. Lefford, Arthur: “The Influence of Emotional Subject Matter on Logical Reasoning”, The Journal of General Psychology, 34 (1946), pp. 127–151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Leventhal, Howard: “The Integration of Emotion and Cognition: A View from the Perceptual-Motor Theory of Emotion”, in: Margaret Clark and Susan Fiske, (Eds.): Affect and Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ (Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc., Inc.,) 1982, pp. 121–156.Google Scholar
  52. Lewis, Michael, Margaret Wolan Sullivan, and Linda Michalson: “The Cognitive-Emotional Fugue”, in: Caroll E. Izard, Jerome Kagan, and Robert B. Zajonc, (Eds.): Emotions, Cognition, and Behavior, Cambridge (Cambridge University Press) 1984, pp. 264–288.Google Scholar
  53. Maital, SI-moMO, Minds, Markets, and Money, New York ( Basic Books, Inc. ) 1982.Google Scholar
  54. Marshall, G.D. and P.G. Zimbardo: “Affective Consequences of Inadequately Explained Physiological Arousal”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (1979), pp. 970–985.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Maslach, C.: “Negative emotional biasing of unexplained arousal”, Journal of Personal Social Psychology, 37 (1979), pp. 953–969.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moment, David: “Career Development: A Future Oriented Historical Approach for Re- search and Action”, PersonnelAdministration,30: 4 (July/Aug, 1967), pp. 6–11.Google Scholar
  57. Morgan, James N.: “Multiple Motives, Group Decisions, Uncertainty, Ignorance, and Confusion: A Realistic Economics of the Consumer Requires Some Psychology”, American Economic Review, 68:2 (May, 1978 ), pp. 58–63.Google Scholar
  58. Nisbet, J.D. and W. Grant: “Vocational Intentions and Decisions of Aberdeen ARts Graduates”, Occupational Psychology, 39 (1965), pp. 215–219.Google Scholar
  59. Nisbett, Richard and Lee Ross: Human Inference: Strategies And Shortcomings of Social Judgement, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey (Prentice-Hall ) 1980.Google Scholar
  60. Norman, D.A.: “Twelve Issues for Cognitive Science”, in: D.A. NORMAN, (Ed.): Perspectives on Cognitive Science: Talks from the La Jolla Conference, Hillsdale, NJ (Erlbaum) 1980.Google Scholar
  61. Pieters, Rik G.M. and W. Fred Van Raaij: “The Role of Affect in Economic Behavior”, in: W. Fred Van Raaij, Gery M. Van Veldhoven, Theo M.M. Verhallen, And KarL Erik Warneryd, (Eds.): Handbook of Economic Psychology, Amsterdam (North-Holland) 1987.Google Scholar
  62. Schachter, Stanley and J.E. Singer: “Cognitive, Social and Psychological Determinants of Emotional State”, Psychology Review, 69 (1962), pp. 379–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Schachter, Stanley: Emotion, Obesity, and Crime,New York (Academic Press)1971.Google Scholar
  64. Schwartz, Shalom H.: “Moral Decision Making and Behavior”, in: J. Macaulay And L. Berkowrrz, (Eds.): Altruism and Helping Behavior, New York (Academic Press) 1970a, pp. 127–141.Google Scholar
  65. Schwartz, Shalom H.: “Elicitation of Moral Obligation And Self-Sacrificing Behavior: An Experimental Study of Volunteering to be a Bone Marrow Donor”, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 15: 4 (1970b), pp. 283–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schwartz, Shalom H.: “Normative Influences on Altruism”, in: Leonard Belucowrrz,(Ed.): Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 10, New York (Academic Press) 1977, pp. 221–270.Google Scholar
  67. Sills, David S.: The Volunteers: Means and Ends in a National Organization, Glencoe, IL (The Free Press ) 1957.Google Scholar
  68. Simon, Herbert: Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision Making Processes in Administrative Organization, 3rd edition, New York (Free Press) 1976.Google Scholar
  69. Simmons, Roberta G., Susan D. Klein and Robert L. Simmons: Gift of Life: The Social and Psychological Impact of Organ Transplantation, New York (Wiley) 1977.Google Scholar
  70. Sjoberg, Lennart: “Volition Problems in Carrying Through a Difficult Decision”, Acta Psychologica, 45 (1980), pp. 123–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Slovic, Paul and Sarah Lichtenstein: “Facts versus Fears: Understanding Perceived Risk”, in: D. Kahneman, Paul Slovic And A. Tversky, (Eds.): Judgement Unde Uncertainty, New York (Cambridge Univ. Press) 1982, pp. 463–489.Google Scholar
  72. Soelberg, P.: “Unprogrammed Decision Making: Job Choice”, Industrial Management Review, 9 (1967), pp. 1–12.Google Scholar
  73. Steiner, Ivan D.: “Attribution of Choice”, in: Martin Fishbein, (Ed.): Progress in Social Psychology, Hillsdale, NJ (Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc) 1980.Google Scholar
  74. Stigler, George J. and Gary S. Becker: “De Gustibus Non Est Dispatandum”, American Economic Review, 67:2 (March, 1980 ), pp. 76–90.Google Scholar
  75. Toda, Masanao: “Emotion in Decision-Making”, Acta Psychologica, 45 (1980), pp. 133–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Torrance, E. Paul: “The Behavior of Small Groups Under the Stress Conditions of Survival”, American Sociological Review, 19 (1954), pp. 751–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Von Magnus, Eric: “Preference, Rationality, and Risk Taking”, Ethics, 94 (July, 1984 ), pp. 637–648.Google Scholar
  78. Walzer, Michael: Spheres of Justice, New York (Basic Books) 1983.Google Scholar
  79. Watson, I.G. and Sam Barone: “The Self Concept, Personal Values, and Motivational Orientations of Black and White Managers”, Academy of Management Journal, 19:1 (March, 1976 ), pp. 442–451.Google Scholar
  80. Weber, Max: Economy and Society,by: Gunther Roth And Claus Wittich, (Eds.), New York (Bedminster Press) 1921–22/1968.Google Scholar
  81. Williams, Edward E. and Findlay M. Chapman HI: “A Reconsideration of the Rationality Postulate”, American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 40:1 (January, 1981 ), pp. 18–19.Google Scholar
  82. Wolosin, R.J., S.J. Sherman, and A. Till: “Effects of Cooperation and Competition on Responsibility Attribution after Success and Failure”, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 9 (1973), pp. 220–235.Google Scholar
  83. Woodworth, R.S. and R.S. Schlosberg: Experimental Psychology, New York (Holt) 1954.Google Scholar
  84. Wright, W.F. and G.H. Bower: Mood Effects on Subjective Probability Assessment, Unpublished manuscript, Stanford University, 1981.Google Scholar
  85. Yerkes, R.M. and J.D. Dodson: “The Relation of Strength of Stimulus to Rapidity of Habit Formation”, Journal Comp. Neurol. Psychol., 18 (1908), pp. 459–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Zajonc, R.V.: “Feeling and Thinking: Preferences Need No Inferences”, American Psychologist,35:2 (February, 1980), pp. 151–175.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amitai Etzioni
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies Suite 714JThe George Washington UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations