Direct Characterization of Chemical Properties of Fibers

  • P. Stenius
  • T. Vuorinen
Part of the Springer Series in Wood Science book series (SSWOO)

Abstract

This chapter describes analytical methods that are applicable for the characterization of the chemical composition of fibers as such, without a previous separation of the components or component groups from each other. Although the details of the structure and composition generally can be obtained only to a limited extent, these direct methods possess definite advantages. For example, a minimum of preparation is required. Often samples can be analyzed more or less directly and, in some cases, the lateral and vertical distribution of different chemical structures in the fibers can be determined. The methods can be roughly divided into the following groups:
  1. 1.

    “Dry” methods for the characterization of structural features of fiber constituents. These methods include different spectroscopies: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), Raman and ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) as well as pyrolysis gas chromatography (Py-GC).

     
  2. 2.

    “Dry” methods for the surface analysis of fibers. By far the most important of these methods are electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA), also known as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS).

     
  3. 3.

    “Wet” methods for the determination of the amounts of different components and functional groups in the fibers as a whole or on the fiber surfaces by using both chemical and enzymatic treatments.

     

Keywords

Ozone Carbonyl Oligosaccharide Gallium Cesium 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Stenius
  • T. Vuorinen

There are no affiliations available

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