• Peter Y. Yu
  • Manuel Cardona


In textbooks on solid-state physics, a semiconductor is usually defined rather loosely as a material with electrical resistivity lying in the range of 10−2 – 109 Ω cm. Alternatively, it can be defined as a material whose energy gap (to be defined more precisely in Chap. 2) for electronic excitations lies between zero and about 3 electron volts (eV). Materials with zero bandgap are metals or semimetals, while those with an energy gap larger than 3 eV are more frequently known as insulators. There are exceptions to these definitions. For example, terms such as semiconducting diamond (whose energy gap is about 6 eV) and semi-insulating GaAs (with a 1.5 eV energy gap) are frequently used. GaN, which is receiving a lot of attention as optoelectronic material in the blue region, has a gap of 3.5 eV


Molecular Beam Epitaxy Molybdenum Disulfide Liquid Phase Epitaxy Growth Technique Bulk Single Crystal 
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  1. 1.1
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  2. S. Nakamura, G. Fasol: The Blue Laser Diode. GaN Based Light Emitters and Lasers (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1997 )Google Scholar
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General Reading

  1. Chernov A. A.: Modern Crystallography III — Crystal Growth, Springer Ser. SolidState Sci., Vol. 36 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1984 )Google Scholar
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  4. Kittel C.: Introduction to Solid State Physics, 7th edn. ( Wiley, New York 1995 )Google Scholar
  5. Laudies R. A.: The Growth of Single Crystals ( Prentice-Hall, New York 1970 )Google Scholar
  6. Matthews J. W. (ed.): Epitaxial Growth, Pts. a and b (Academic, New York 1975 )Google Scholar
  7. Panish M. B., H. Temkin: Gas Source Molecular Beam Epitaxy, Springer Ser. Mater. Sci., Vol. 26 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1993 )Google Scholar
  8. Williams, J. O.: Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (MOCVD) for the preparation of semiconductor materials and devices, in Growth and Characterization of Semiconductors, ed. by R. A. Stradling, P. C. Klipstein ( Hilger, Bristol 1990 ) p. 17Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Y. Yu
    • 1
  • Manuel Cardona
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Max-Planck-Institut für FestkörperforschungStuttgartGermany

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