Advertisement

Zeolites as Catalysts in Industrial Processes

  • P. M. M. Blauwhoff
  • J. W. Gosselink
  • E. P. Kieffer
  • S. T. Sie
  • W. H. J. Stork
Chapter

Abstract

Zeolites find three main commercial applications: in detergents, because of their ion-exchange capacity, in separations and adsorption, because of their molecular sieve properties, and as catalysts, mainly because of their high acidity. In volume, the application in detergents is by far the largest [1]. However, with respect to financial market size, catalysts form the largest application of zeolites [2]. As an example, the market volume in US $/annum of zeolite catalysts (basis 1994 figures) constitutes about 60% of the total market, with fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts forming the greatest contribution, 48% of total market, followed by hydrocracking catalysts, 7% of total market. In catalysts currently mainly zeolite Y is used, with the biggest consumption being in catalytic cracking and hydrocracking, but ZSM-5, mordenite, and other zeolites have also found commercial application in catalysts. Continuously, new catalytic applications are being developed, or existing ones further fine-tuned, by making use of the many opportunities zeolites offer for tailoring a catalyst.

Keywords

Fluid Catalytic Crack Fluid Catalytic Crack Catalyst Research Octane Number Fluid Catalytic Crack Gasoline Toluene Disproportionation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

ASA

amorphous silica-alumina

BP

British Petroleum Co.

bpsd

barrels per stream day

BTX

benzene toluene xylene

CCR

Conradson carbon residue

DHCD

dehydrocyclodimerization

DIPD

diisopropyldiphenyl

DME

dimethyl ether

EB

ethylbenzene

EBHP

ethylbenzene hydroperoxide

FCC

fluid catalytic cracking

FIMS

Field Ion Mass Spectrometry

GHSV

gas hourly space velocity

HDN

hydrodenitrogenation

LABS

linear alkylbenzene sulfonates

LCO

light cycle oil

LPG

liquified petroleum gases

LR

long residue

MDDW

Mobil Distillate Dewaxing

MEK

methyl ethyl ketone

MHC

Mild Hydrocracking

MOGD

Mobil Olefins to Gasoline and Distillate

MON

Motor octane number

MSTDP

Mobil Selective Toluene Disproportionation Process

MTBE

Methyl-tertiary-butyl ether

MTDP

Mobil Toluene Disproportionation Process

MTG

methanol to gasoline

MTO

methanol to olefins

PCAH

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

PCP

protonated cyclopropane

PSD

pore size distribution or particle size distribution

RON

reseach octane number

RVD

Reid vapor pressure

SMDS

Shell Middle Distillate Synthesis

SPA

supported phosphoric acid

SPGK

Shell Poly-Gasoline and -Kero process

TAME

tert-amyl-methyl ether

TBHP

tert-butyl hydroperoxide

TIGAS

Topsøe Integrated Gasoline synthesis

TIP

Total Isomerization Process

UCS

unit cell size

UOP

Universal Oil Products Inc.

URBK

Union Rheinische Braunkohlen Kraftstoff AG

USY

ultrastable Y-zeolite

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Moscou L (1991) In: van Bekkum H, Flanigen EM and Jansen JC (eds) Introduction to zeolite science and practice. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 1Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Naber JE, De Jong KP, Stork WHJ, Kuipers HPCE, Post MFM (1994) In: Zeolites and Related Microporous Materials: State of the Art 1994, Weitkamp J, Karge HG, Pfeifer H, Hölderich W (eds) Elsevier Science BV, Amsterdam, p 2197–2219Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Maxwell IE, Stork WHJ (1991) In: Van Bekkum H, Flanigen EM and Jansen JC (eds) Introduction to zeolite science and practice, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 571Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    EU Environmental specifications for market fuels for year 2000, proposed by the Council of Environmental Ministers 19.6.97Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Van Zijll Langhout WC, Ouwerkerk C, Pronk KMA (1980) Paper presented at the 88th National Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, June 8–12Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Röbschläger KW, Deelen WJ, Naber JE (1992) Proceedings International Symposium on Heavy Oil and Residue Upgrading and Utilization, Chongren H and Chu H (ed) International Academic Publishers Beijing, 249–254Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gosselink JW (1998) In: Weber T et al (eds) Transition Metal Sulphides, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, p 311–355Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Scheffer B, Van Koten MA, Röbschläger KW, de Boks FC (1998) Catal Today 43:217–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Espeel P, Parton R, Toufar H, Martens J, Hölderich W, Jacos P, this book, chap 6Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Naber JE, Barnes PH, Akbar M (1988) The Shell residue fluid catalytic cracking process. Commercial experience and future developments, Japan Petroleum Institute, Petroleum Refining Conference, Tokyo, October 19–21Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mauleon JL, Courcelle JC (1985) FCC heat balance considerations with heavy feeds, 6th Katalistiks FCC Symposium, Munich, May 22–23Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Avidan AA, Edwards M, Owen H (1990) Innovative improvements highlight FCCs past and future, Oil Gas J, Jan 8, p 33Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Advances in fluid catalytic cracking (1987) Catalytica study number 4186 CCGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dean RR, Hibble PW, Brown GW (1987) Crude oil upgrading utilizing residual oil fluid catalytic cracking, 8th Katalistiks FCC Symposium, Hungary, June 1–4Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Shaffer Jr AG, Hemler CL (1990) Seven years of operation proves RCC capability, Oil Gas J, May 28, p 62Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biswas J, Maxwell IE (1990) Appl Catal 58: 1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Naber JE, Barnes PH, Akbar M, Japan Petrol Inst Petr Ref Conf, Tokyo, Japan, 19–21 October 1988Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Elvin FJ (1991) Fluid cracking catalyst demetallization. Commercial results. NPRA Annual Meeting, March 17–19, San Antonio, TX, paper AM-91–40Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Akbar M, Borley M, Claverin B, Otto H (1986) Some experiences with FCC octane enhancement, AKZO Catalysts Symposium, May 25–28, paper F-3Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Young GW, Suarez W, Roberie TG, Cheng WC (1991) Reformulated gasoline: the role of current and future FCC catalysts, NPRA Annual Meeting, march 17–19, San Antonio, TX, paper AM-91–34Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Martino G, Courty, P, Marcilly (1997) In: Ertl G, Knoezinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Vol 4, VCH-Wiley, Weinheim, p 1805Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Naber JE, de Jong KP, Stork WHJ, Kuipers HPCE, Post MFM (1994) In: Weitkamp J, Karge HG, Pfeifer H, Hoelderich (eds) Zeolites and Related Microporous Materials, Stud Surf Sci Catal 84. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 2197Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    von Ballmoos R, Harris DH, Magee JS (1997) In: Ertl G, Knoezinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, VCH-Wiley, Weinheim, Vol 4, p 1955Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Helmsing MP, Makkee M, Moulijn JA (1995) In: O’Connor P, Takatsuka T, Woolery GL (eds) Deactivation and testing of hydrocarbon processing catalysts, ACS Symposium Series 364, 1995, p 322Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Scherzer J (1989) Octane-enhancing, zeolitic FCC catalysts: scientific and technical aspects, Catal Rev Sci Eng 31(3):215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Venuto PB, Habib ET (1979) Fluid catalytic cracking with zeolite catalysts. Dekker, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ward JW (1984) In: Leach BE et al. (eds) Applied industrial catalysis. Academic Press, New York, NY, vol 4, p 272Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wojciechowski BW, Corma A (1986) Catalytic cracking. Dekker, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Keyworth DA, Nieman J, O’Connor P, Stanger CW (1987) NPRA Annual Meeting, San Atnonio, TX, paper AM-87–62Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sie ST (1992) Ind Eng Chem Res 31:1881; (1993) 32:403Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Haag W, Dessau MR (1984) Proc 8th Int Congress Catal, Berlin, vol 2, p 305Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Davison Catalagram, No 76, 1987Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ramamoorthy P et al. (1988) A new metals passivator in fluid catalytic cracking, NPRA Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, March 20–22Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Heite RS, English AR, Smith GA (1990) Bismuth nickel passivation effective in FCCU, Oil Gas J, June 4, p 81Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    English AR, Kowalzyk DC (1984) Oil Gas J, July 16,127Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Groenenboom CJ, Van Houtert FW, Van Maare J (1984) Metals in cracking catalysts, Ketjen Catalysts Symposium, Amsterdam, Mai 27–30Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dwyer FG, Degnan F (1993) In: Magee JS, Mitchell MM jr (eds) Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Science and Technology, Stud Surf Sci Cat 76, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 499Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Corma A, Gonzalez-Alfaro V, Orchilles AV (1995) Appl Catal 129: 203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Van Wechem HMH (1996) paper presented at The Institute of petroleum. Hydrogen - The refinery green light, London, April 25, 1996Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gosselink JW, Stork WHJ, De Vries AF, Smit CH (1987) In: Delmon B, Froment GF (eds) Catalyst Deactivation 1987. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 279Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Maxwell IE, Minderhoud JK, Stork WHJ, Van Veen JAR (1997) In: Ertl G, Knoezinger, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, Vol 4, VCH-Wiley, Weinheim, pp 2017–2038Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Van Dijk A, De Vries AF, Van Veen JAR, Stork WHJ, Blauwhoff PMM (1991) Catal Today 11:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ladeur P, Bijwaard H (1993) Oil Gas J, April 25, 64Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Basta N, Reno M (1988) Chem Eng V93 N 32–33 (1/6/88)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Stork WHJ (1997) In: Froment GF, Delmon B, Grange P (eds) Hydrotreatment and Hydrocracking of Oil Fractions, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 41–67Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hoek A, Huizinga T, Esener AA, Maxwell IE, Stork WHJ, Van de Meerakker FJ, Sy O (1991) Oil Gas J, April 22, 77Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    European Patent Specificaton 0 683 218Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    O’Rear DJ (1987) Ind Eng Chem Res 26:2337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gosselink JW, Van de Paverd A, Stork WHJ (1990) In: Trimm DL et al. (eds) Catalysts in Petroleum Refining 1989, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 385Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Schulz H, Weitkamp J (1972) Ind Eng Chem Prod Res Develop 11:46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weitkamp J, Dauns H (1987) Erdöl, Kohle - Erdgas - Petrochem 40:111Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Martens JA, Jacobs PA, Weitkamp J (1986) Appl Catal 20:239, 283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Jacobs PA, Martens JA (1991) In: van Bekkum H, Flanigen EM, Jansen JC (eds) Introduction to Zeolite Science and Practice, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 445Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Coonradt ML, Garwood WE (1964) Ind Eng Chem Prod Res Dev 3:38Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Minderhoud JK, Van Veen JAR (1993) First-stage hydrocracking: Process and catalytic aspects, Fuel Process Technol 35:87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Weisz PB (1962) Adv Catal 13:137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nat PJ, Schoonhoven JWFM, Plantenga FL (1990) In: Trimm DL et al. (eds) Catalysts in Petroleum Refining 1989. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 399Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Beuther H, Larson OA (1965) Ind Eng Chem Proc Des Dev 4:177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gosselink JW, Stork WHJ (1997) Ind Eng Chem Res 36:3354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Absi-Halabi M, Stanislaus A (1991) Appl Catal 72:193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    de Jong KP, Reinalda D, Emeis CA (1994) In: Delmon B, Froment GF (eds) Catalyst Deactivation. Stud Surf Sci Catal. Elsevier, Amsterdam 88:155Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hadjiloizou GC, Butt JB, Dranoff JS (1992) J Catal 135:481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Esener AA, Maxwell IE (1989) In: Occelli ML, Anthony RG (eds) Advances in Hydro-treating Catalysts. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 263Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Maxwell IE, Van de Griend JA (1986) In: Murakami Y et al. (eds) New Developments in Zeolite Science and Technology, Proceedings of the 7th International Zeolite Conference. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 795Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Van Veen JAR et al., to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Yan TY (1990) Ind Eng Chem Res 29:1995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Dauns H, Ernst S, Weitkamp J (1986) Stud Surf Sci Catal 28 (New Developments Zeolite Science and Technol). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 787–794Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Douwes CT, Hart M (1968) Erdöl, Kohle - Erdgas - Petrochem 21:202Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Ward JW (1983) In: Poncelet G, Grange P, Jacobs PA (eds) Preparation of catalysts III. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 587Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Occelli ML (1997) US Patent 5,614,453Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Miale JN, Chen NY, Weisz PB (1966) J Catal 6: 278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Yan T (1983) Ind Eng Chem Proc Des Dev 22:154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Maxwell IE (1987) Catal Today 1:385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Nace DM (1970) Ind Eng Chem Prod Res Dev 9:203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Corma A, Kan Q, Navarro MT, Perez-Pariente J, Rey F (1997) Chem Mater 9: 2123–2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Martens JA, Jacobs PA, this book, chap 2Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Balkus KJ jr, Khanmamedova A, Gabrielov AG, Zones SI (1996) In: Hightower JW, Delgass WN, Iglesia I, Bell AT, Studies in Surface Scinece and Catalysis, vol 101, 1 1th International Congress on Catalysis, 40th Anniversary. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 1341–1348Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    US Patent Specification (1972) 3,702,818Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Naber JE, Stork WHJ (1991) paper presented at the JECAT `91 Tokyo, Japan, 2–4 DecemberGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Foley RM, George SE (1991) NPRA Annual Meeting, March 17–19, paper AM 91–13Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Nat PJ (1989) Erdöl, Kohle - Erdgas - Petrochem 42:447Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Goossens AG (1986) Hydrocarbon Processing, November, p 84Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Ondrey G, Kim I, Parkinson G (1996) Chemical Engineering, June, 39Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Doherty MF, Buzad G (1992) Trans Ichem 70:448Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Barchas R, Samarth R, Gildert G (1993) Fuels Reformulation 3:44Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Hearn D, Putman HM (1997) PCT Patent WO 97/03149Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Hickley TP, Adams JR (1994) US Patent 5,321,163Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sie ST (March 1995) NPT Processtechnologie, 9–13 (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Sie ST (April 1995) NPT Processtechnologie, 9–12 (in Dutch)Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Krishna R, Sie ST (1994) Chemical Engineering Science 49:4029–4065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Chen NY, Degnan TF (1988) Chem Eng Prog 84 (February 1988), 32–41Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Andre J-P, Hahn S-K, Min W (1996) NPRA Annual Meeting, March 17–19, San Antonio, Texas, USA, AM-96–38Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Everett GL, Suchanek A (1996) NPRA Annual Meeting, March 17–19,1996, Conventional Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA, AM-96–37Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Qureshi WR, Howell RL, Hung C, Xiao J (1996) 2nd Annual Fuels and Lubes Asia Conference, Singapore, January 29–31Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rhodes AK 81997) Oil Gas J, Sept 1, 66–70Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Appetiti A, Simola F, Binaco B (1990) NPRA Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, paper AM 90–43Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Bryan FM, Chen NY, LaPierre RB, Pappal DA, Patridge RD, Wong SF (1995) HTI Quartely Refining, Autumn, 14–19Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Farrell TR, Zakarian JA (1986) Oil Gas J 84(20):47Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Miller SJ, Shippey, MA, Massada, NPRA Fuels and Lubriants National Meeting (Houston 11/5–6/1992), paper N.FL-92–109Google Scholar
  100. 10.
    Law DV (1993, October 19) Presentation at the Institute of Petroleum Economics of Refining Conference, LondonGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Grootjans J, Sonnemans JWM (1991) Ketjan Catalysts Symposium, paper H-5Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Homan Free HW, Schockaert T, Sonnemans JWM (1993) Fuel Processing Technology 35:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Hargrove JD, Elkes GJ, Richardson AH (1979) Oil Gas J 77(3): 103Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Chen NY, Gorring RL, Ireland HR, Stein TR (1977) Oil Gas J 75, June 6, p 165Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Smith KW, Starr WC, Chen NY (1980) Oil Gas J 78, May 26, p 75Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Chen NY, Schlenker JL, Garwood WE, Kokotailo GT (1984) J Catal 86:24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Rollmann LD, Walsh DE (1979) J Catal 56:139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bendoraitis JG, Chester AW, Dwyer FG, Garwood WE (1986) In: Murakami Y, Iijima A, Ward JW (eds) Proceedings 7th International Zeolites Conference, Kodansha/Elsevier, Tokyo, p 669Google Scholar
  109. 10.
    Patent WO 92/01657Google Scholar
  110. 11.
    US Patent 5,135,638Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Sivasanker S, Waghmare KJ, Reddy M, Ratnasamy P (1988) In: Proceedings 9th International Congress on Catalysis, Calgary, Vol 1, Phillips MJ, Ternan M (eds) The Chemical Institute of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, p 120Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Maxwell IE, Stork WHJ (1999) In: Van Bekkum H, Flanigen EM, Jansen JC (eds) Introduction to Zeolite Science and Practice 2nd edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, in preparationGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Chen NY, Garwood WE (1986) Catal Rev-Sci Eng 28 (2–3):185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Chen NY, Maziuk J, Schwartz AB, Weisz PB (1968) Oil Gas J 66(47): 154Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Chen NY, Garwood WE, US Patent specification 3.379.640Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Chen NY, Rosinski EJ, US Patent Specification 3.630.966Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Roselius RR, Gibson KR, Orriiston RM, Maziuk J, Smith FM (1973) NPRA Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, AprilGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chen NY, US Patent Specification 3.729.409Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Heinemann H (1977) Catal Rev-Sci Eng 15:53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chen NY, Garwood WE, Haag WO, Schwartz AB (1979) paper presented at AIChE 72nd Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November 25–29Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Weisz PB (1980) Pure Appl Chem 52:2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Bonacci JC, Patterson JR, US Patent Specification 4.292.167Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Gonzalez RG (1996) Hart’s fuel technology and management, November/December, p 56Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    WO 93/04146, world patent applicationGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Hilbert TL, Durand PP, Sarli MS (1996) Hydrocarbon Asia, November/December, p 86Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Salazar JA, Badra C, Perez JA, Palmisano E, Garcia W, Solari B (1996) Symposium on the removal of aromatics, sulfur and olefins from gasoline and diesel, presented at 212th national ACS Meeting, Division of petroleum chemistry, Orlando, FL, August 25–29Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Fernandez PD, Schmidt RJ, Johnson BH, Rice LH (1988) NPRA Annual Meeting, San Antonio, TX, March 20–22, paper AM-88–45Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Gosling C, Rosin R, Bullen P, Shimizu T, Imai T (1997) paper presented at the World Conference on Refining, Vehicle Technology and Fuel Quality, Brussels (Belgium), May 21–23. In addition, taking into account information obtained at SRTCAGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Weitkamp J (1975) In: Ward JW (ed) Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking, ACS Symposium Series 20, p 1Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kuchar PJ, Bricker JC, Reno ME, Haizman RS (1993) Fuels Processing Technology, 35: 183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sachtler WMH, to be published in Topics in CatalysisGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Liu H, Lei GD, Sachtler WMH (1996) Applied Catalysis, A, 146 (1):165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Blomsma E, Martens JA, Jacobs PA (1997) J Catal 165:241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Blomsma E, Martens JA, Jacobs PA (1996) J Catal 159:323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Blomsma E, Martens JA, Jacobs PA (1995) J Catal 155:141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bloch HS, Haensel V, US Patent Specification 2.999.074Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Raghuram S, Haizmann RS, Lowry DR, Schiferli WJ (1990) Oil Gas J, Dec 3, p 66Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Stork WHJ, personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Myers JW (1977) Ind Eng Chem Prod Res Develop 10(2):200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Franck JP, Le Page J-F, Roumegous A (1981) In: Seiyama T, Tanabe K (eds) New Horizons in Catalysis, Studies Surf Sci Catal, vol 7. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 1018Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Melchor A, Garbowski E, Mathieu MV, Primet M (1986) J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 1, 82:1893Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    endorf RL, Boskovic G, Butt JB (1990) Appl Catal 62:85 and references cited thereinGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Oil Gas Journal, April 7, 1997, p 41Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Koradia PB, Kiovsky JR, Asim MY (1980) J Catal 66:290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Hays GR, Van Erp WA, Alma NCM, Couperus PA, Huis R, Wilson AE (1984) Zeolites 4:377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Guisnet M, Fouche V, Belloum M, Bournonville JP, Travers C (1991) Appl Catal 71:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Guisnet M, Fouche V, Belloum M, Bournonville JP, Travers C (1991) Appl Catal 71:295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Gray JA, Cobb JT (1975) J Catal 36:125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Leglise J, Chambellan A, Cornet D (1991) Appl Catal 69:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Leglise J, Goupil JM, Cornet D (1991) Appl Catal 69:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Fajula F, Boulet M, Coq B, Rajaofanova V, Figueras F, des Courieres T (1993) In: Guczi L et al. (eds) New Frontiers in Catalysis, Proc 10th Int Congress on Catalysis, Juli 19–24, 1992, Budapest. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Allain JF, Magnoux P, Schulz Ph, Guisnet M (1996) Proceedings DGMK Meeting, Berlin, March 14–15, pp 219–226Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Leu L-J, lion L-Y, Kang B-C, Li C, Wu S-T, Wu J-C (1991) Appl Catal 69:49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Kumar Kunchal S, Dwyer FG, Ambler CP (1993) Paper AM 93–45 at the 1993 NPRA Annual Meeting, march 21–23, San Antonio, Texas, USAGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Gialella RM, Mank L, Burzynski J-P, Duee D, Travers C (1993) Paper AM 93–15, presented at the NPRA Annal meeting, March 21–23, San Antonio, Texas, USAGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Mooiweer HH, de Jong KP, Kraushaar-Czarnetski B, Stork WHJ, Krutzen BCH (1994) In: Weitkamp J, Karge HG, Pfeifer H, Hölderich W (eds) Zeolites and Related Microporous Materials: State of the Art 1994. Stud Surf Sci Cat, vol 84, pp 2327–2334. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1994Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Powers DH (1993) Presentation O-1 at the 1993 DEWITT Petrochemical review, Houston, Texas, USA, March 23–25Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Houzvicka J, Diefenbach O, Ponec V (1996) J Catal 164:288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Weitkamp J, Traa Y (1997) In: Ertl G, Knoezinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, vol 4, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, p 2039Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Corma A, Martinez A (1993) Catal Rev-Sci Eng 35:483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Guisnet M, Gnep NS (1996) Appl Catal A 146:33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Mesters CMAM, Peferoen DGR, Gilson JP, de Groot C, van Brugge PTM, de Jong KP (1996) In: Weitkamp J, Luecke B (eds) Proceedings of the DGMK Conference on Solid Acids and Bases, Berlin, March 14–15, DGMK, Hamburg, pp 57–58Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Oil Gas J, 94(14): 69Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Hughes TR, Buss WC, Tamm PW, Jacobson RL (1986) In: Murakami Y, Iijima A, Ward JW (eds) Proceedings 7th International Zeolites Conference, Kodansha/Elsevier, Tokyo, p 725Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Bernard JR (1980) in Rees LUC (eds), Proc Fifth Intern Conf Zeolites, Heyden, London, p 686; see also ref. 170Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Tamm PW, Mohr DH, Wilson CR (1988) Stud Surf Sci Catal 38 (Catalysis 1987) Elsevier, Amsterdam 335–353Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Lane GS, Modica FS, Miller JT (1991) J Catal 129:142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Derouane EG, Vanderkerken DJ (1988) Appl Catal 45:L15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Davis RJ, Derouane EG (1991) Nature 349:313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Law DV, Tamm PW, Detz CM (1987) Energy Prog 7: 215–222Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Law DV, Tamm PW, Detz CM (1987) Spring Natinal meeting, AIChE, March 29-April 2, Houston, TexasGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    PCT WO 91/11501Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Zones SS (1996) Paper S7b.2, Symposium Advanced Catalytic Materials, MRS Fall Meeting, Boston, USA, December 2–5Google Scholar
  174. 17.
    US Patent 5,328,595Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Naber JE, Stork WHJ, Blauwhoff PMM, Groeneveld KJW (1991) Oil Gas European Magazine 1:26Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Milan SN, Winquist BHC, Murray BD, Minderhoud JK, Del Paggio AA (1991) Reduction of aromatics in diesel fuel, a low pressure, two stage approach, Paper presented at the 1991 A1ChE Meeting in Houston, TX, April 8–12Google Scholar
  177. 177.
    Van den Berg JP, Lucien JP, Germaine G, Thielemans GLB (1993) Fuels Process Technol 35:119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Stork WHJ (1997) Stud Surf Sci Catal 106:41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Dave D, Gupta A, Karlson K, Suchanek AJ, van Stralen H (1993) Paper AM 93–24 in the 1993 Spring Annual NPRA MeetingGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Maiden CJ (1988) ChemTech, January, p 38Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Maiden CJ (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF,Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 1Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Zenn JZ (1988) ChemTech, January, p 42Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Zenn JZ (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF,Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 663Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Meisel SL, McCullough JP, Lechthaler CH, Weisz PB (1976) ChemTech, February, p 86Google Scholar
  185. 185.
    Chang CD, Silvestri AJ (1977) J Catal 47:249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Chang CD (1983) Hydrocarbons from Methanol. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Chang CD (1983) Catal Rev Sci Eng 25:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Chang CD (1988) Stud Surf Sci Catal 36:127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Hutchins GJ, Hunter R (1990) Catal Today 6:279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Yurchak S, Voltz SE, Warner JP (1979) Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev 18:527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Kam AY, Schreiner M, Yurchak S (1984) In: Meyers RA (ed) Handbook of Synfuels Technology. McGraw-Hill, New York, chaps 2–3Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Penick JE, Lee W, Maziuk J (1983) In: Wei J, Georgakis C (eds) Chemical reaction engineering - plenary lectures, ACS Symposium Series 226, ACS, Washington DC, p 19Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Yurchak S (1988) Stud Surf Sci Catal 36:251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Yurchak S (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF, Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 251Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Krohn DE, Melconian MG (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF, Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 679Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Lee W, Yurchak S, Daviduk N, Maziuk J (1980) A fixed-bed process for the conversion of methanol-to-gasoline, Paper presented at the NPRA Annual Meeting, New Orleans, LA, March 23–25Google Scholar
  197. 197.
    Tabak SA, Yurchak S (1990) Catal Today 6:307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Allum KG, Williams AR (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF, Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 691Google Scholar
  199. 199.
    Liederman D, Jacob SM, Voltz SE, Wise JJ (1978) Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev 17(3):340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Lee W, Maziuk J, Thiemann WK (1978) Ein neuer Prozeß zur Umwandlung von Kohle in Ottokraftstoff, Paper presented at the 26th DGMK Meeting, Berlin, October 4–6Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Edwards M, Avidan A (1986) Chem Eng Science 41(4): 729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Maziuk J, Gould R, Keim KH, Gierlich R (1984) The methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process, Paper presented at the PetroPacific `84 Converence, Melbourne, September 16–19; Keim KH, Maziuk J, Tonnesmann A (1984) Erdöl and Kohle, Erdgas, Petrochemie 37:558Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Grimmer HR, Thiagarajan N, Nitschke E (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF, Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 273Google Scholar
  204. 204.
    Joenseni F, Kiilerich Hansen JR, Rostrup-Nielsen J, Skov A, Topp-Jorgensen J (1985) Conversion of synthesis gas to high octane gasoline, Paper presented at a Conference on large chemical plants, Antwerp, October 9–11Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Topp-Jorgensen J (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF, Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion. Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 293Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Chang CD, Kuo JCW, Lang WH, Jacob SM, Wise JJ, Silvestri AJ (1978) Ind Eng Chem Process Res Dev 17:255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Chang CD, Lang WH, Silvestri AJ (1979) J Catal 56:268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Schaper L, Sie ST (1977) Netherlands Patent Application 7.711.719 of 26/10/1977, assigned to Shell International Research Mij BVGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Tabak S, Weiss GJ (1984) New synthetic fuel routes for production of gasoline and distillate, Paper presented at the Synfuels 4th Worldwide Symposium, Washington DC, November 7–9Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Tabak SA (1984) New synthetic fuel routes for production of gasoline and distillate, Paper presented at the symposium Nonpetroleum Vehicular Fuels IV, Arlington, VA, April 16–18Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Keim K-H, Krambeck FJ, Maziuk J, Tonnesmann A (1987) Erdöl Erdgas Kohle 103(2): 82Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Piciotti M (1997) Oil Gas J, June 30, 71Google Scholar
  213. 213.
    Garwood WE (1983) In: Stucky GD, Dwyer FG (eds) ACS Symposium Series 218, American Chemical Society, Washington DC, p 23Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Tabak SA, Krambeck FJ, Garwood WE (1984) Conversion of propylene and butylene over ZSM-5 catalyst, Paper presented at the AICHE Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November 25–30Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Avidan AA (1988) In: Bibby DM, Chang CD, Howe RF, Yurchak S (eds) Methane Conversion, Elsevier, Amsterdam, p 307Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Miller SJ (1988) In: Ward JW (ed) Catalysis 1987. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 187–197Google Scholar
  217. 217.
    O’Connor, CT (1997) In: Ertl G, Knözinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of Heterogeneous Catalysis, vol 5. Wiley-VCH Weinheim, pp 2380–2387Google Scholar
  218. 218.
    Chen CSH, Bridger RF (1996) J Catal 161(2):687CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Keskinen KM (1996) VTT Symposium, 163, 111–116; see also WO 9620988Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Martens LR, Verduyn J, Mathijs GM (1997) Catal Today 36 (4):51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Van den Berg JP, Roebschlager KHW, Maxwell IE (1989) The Shell Polygasoline and Kero (SPGK) process, Paper presented at the 1 P North American Catalysis Society Meeting, Dearborn, MI, May 7–11Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    van den Berg JP, Blauwhoff PMM (1991) The Shell Polygasoline and Kero process, Paper presented at the American Chemical Society Meeting, petroleum Chemistry Division, New York, NY, August 25–30Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Stowe RA, Murchison CB (1982) Hydrocarbon Processing, January, p 147Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Synfuls (1982) April 16, p IGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Seddon D (1990) Catal Today 6:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Csicsery JM (1970) J Catal 17:207, 216, 315, 323; 18:30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Davies EE, Kolombos AJ (1976) British Patent Specification 53012/76, December 20, assigned to British Petroleum Co LtdGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Johnson JA, Weiszmann JA, Hilder GK, Hall AHP (1984) NPRA Annual Meeting, an Antonio, TX, March 25–27, paper AM 84–45Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    European Chemical News (1991) January 21Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    European Chemical News (1991) July 15, p 39Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Hoelderich WF (1989) Stud Surf Sci Catal 49:69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Hoelderich WF (1988) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 27:226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Haag WO, Olson DH, Weisz PB (1984) Chem Future, Proceedings 29th IUPAC Congress, 1983, p 327Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Beck JS, Haag WO (1997) In: Ertl G, Knözinger H, Weitkamp J (eds) Handbook of Heterogenous Catalysis, vol 5, Wiley- VCH, Weinheim, p 2123–2136Google Scholar
  235. 235.
    Bolton AP (1976) In: Rabo JA (ed) Hydrocracking, Isomerisation and other Industrial Processes, Zeolite Chemistry and Catalysis. ACS Monograph 171, American Chemcal Society, Washington DC, p 714Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Dwyer FG, Lewis PJ, Schneider FM (1976) Chem Eng, January 5, p 90Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Industrial News (1991) Appl Catal 72, 2, N14; Chem Eng (1990) September, p 19Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Benthem MF, Gajda GJ, Jensen RH, Zinman HA (1996) Proceed. DGMK meeting, Berlin, March 14–15, pp 155–166Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Meima GR, van der Aalst MJM, Samson MSU, Garces JM, Lee JG (1996) Proceed. DGMK Meeting Berlin, March 14–15, pp 125–138Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Meima GR, van der Aalst MJM, Samson MSU, Garces JM, Lee JG (1992) In: von Ballmoos R, Higgins JB, Treacy MMJ (eds) Proceed 9th Int Zeolite Conf Montreal, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, p 327Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Chem Eng News 1995, December 18, p 12Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Portela JAO, Hildreth JM (1994) de Witt Petrochem Rev, Houston, March 22–24, E1–22Google Scholar
  243. 243.
    Vora BV, Pujado PR, Imai AT, Fritsch TR (1990) Recent advances in the production of detergent olefins and linear alkylbenzenes. Soc of Chem Ind, University of Cambridge, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Olson DH, Haag WO (1984) ACS Symposium Series, 89, p 267Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Song C, Schobert HH (1993) Fuels Processing Technology 34:157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Song C, Kirby S (1993) Prepr Am Chem Soc Div Petr Chem 38:783Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Lee GS, Maj JJ, Rocke SC, Garces JM (1989) Catal Letters 2 (4):243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Keading WW, Barile GC, Wu MM (1984) Catal Rev-Sci Eng 26:597CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Bhatia S (1990) Zeolite Catalysis: Principles and Applications. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FLGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    See e.g., GB Patent Specification 9.011.412Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Sie ST, de Vries AF, Mesters CMAM, Boon AQM, Bottenberg K, Trautrims B (1996) DGMK Conference “Catalysis on solid acids and bases”. March 14, 15, Berlin (Germany)Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    European Patent Specification 136.133Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    UK Patent Specification 2.042.490Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Hoelderich W, Gallei E (1984) Chem-Ing-Tech 56(12):908CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    The Catalyst Review Newsletter (1990) 3(3):3Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Gorra F, Breckenridge LL, Guy WWM, Sailor RA (1992) Oil Gas J, October 12, 60Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Sheldon RA (1996) J Mol Catal A: Chemical 107:75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Tuel A, Ben Taârit Y (1993) Appl Catal A: General 102:201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    European Patent Specification 102.655Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    US Patent Specification 4.396.783Google Scholar
  261. 261.
    Notari B (1988) Stud Surf Sci Catal 37:413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Roffla P, Leofanti G, Cesana A, Mantegazza M, Padovan M, Petrini G, Tonti S, Gervasutti V, Veragnolo R (1990) La Chimica & L’Industria 72:598Google Scholar
  263. 263.
    Mantegazza MA, Cesana A, Pastori M (1996) Topics in Cata13327–335Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    ECN Speciality Chemicals Suppl (1991) February, p 14Google Scholar
  265. 265.
    Ramaswamy AV, Sivasanker S (1993) Catal Lett 22:239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Ramaswamy AV, Sivasanker S, Ratnasamy P (1994) Microporous Materials 2:451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Ratnasamy P, Kumar R (1995) In: Bonneviot L, Kaliaguine S (eds) Zeolites: A refined tool for designing catalytic sites, pp 367–376Google Scholar
  268. 268.
    Corma A, Navaro MT, Perez-Pariente J, Sanchez F (1994) In: Weitkamp J, Karge HG, Pfeifer H, Hölderich W (eds) Zeolites and Related Microporous Materials: State of the Art 1994. Stud Surf Sci Cat 84, Elsevier, pp 69–75Google Scholar
  269. 269.
    Taney PT, Chibwe M, Pinnavala TJ (1994) Nature 368:321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Corma A, Navarro MT, Peres Pariente J (1994) Chem Soc, Chem Commun 147Google Scholar
  271. 271.
    Das TKR, Chaudhari K, Chandwadkar AJ, Sivasanker S (1995) J Chem Soc Chem Commun 2495Google Scholar
  272. 272.
    Kulawik K, Schulz-Ekloff G, Rathousky J, Zukal A, Had J (1995) Collect Czech Chem Commun 60:451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Parton RF, Jacobs JM, Huybrechts DR, Jacobs PA (1988) Stud Surf Sci Catal 46:163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Tuel A, Moussa-Khouzami S, Ben Taarit Y, Naccache C (1991) J Mol Catal 68:45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Liu C, Ye X, Wu Y (1996) Catal Lett 35:263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Dai P-SE, Petty RH, Ingram CW, Szostak R (1996) Appl Catal A 143:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Sheldon RA (1981) In: Ugo R (ed) Aspects of Homogeneous Catalysis. Reidel, Dordrecht, 4, p 1Google Scholar
  278. 278.
    Sheldon RA (1991) Chemtech, September, p 566Google Scholar
  279. 279.
    Murugavel R, Roesky HW (1997) Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 36:477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Knops-Gerrits PP, Vankelecom IFJ, Béatse E, Jacobs PA (1996) Catal Today 32:63–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Mantegazza MA, Cesana A, Pastori M (1996) Topics in Catal 3:327–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Fetting F, Dingerdissen U (1992) Chem Eng Technol 15:202–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Deeba M, Ford ME, Johnson TA, Premecz JE (1990) J Mol Catal 60:11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Lequitte M, Figueras F, Moreau C, Hub S (1996) J Catal 163:255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Benac BL, Knifton JF, Dai E, EP 0.587.424 Al (8–9–1993)Google Scholar
  286. 286.
    US Patent Specification 4.254.061Google Scholar
  287. 287.
    European Patent Specification 0.26.071Google Scholar
  288. 288.
    Keane M, Sonnichsen GC, Abrams L, Corbin DR, Gier TE, Shannon RD (1987) Appl Catal 32:361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Mizuno N, Tabata M, Uematsu T, Iwamoto M (1993) J Chem Soc Faraday Trans 89:3513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Mochida I, Yasutake A, Fujitsu H, Takeshita K (1983) J Catal 82:313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    European Patent Specification 125.616Google Scholar
  292. 292.
    Misono M, Nojiri N (1990) Appl Catal 64:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Eller K, Kummer R, Stops P, PCT Patent WO 97/21661 (19–6–1997)Google Scholar
  294. 294.
    Eller K, Kummer R, Stops P, EP 0.778.259 A2 (11–6–1997)Google Scholar
  295. 295.
    Eller K, Kummer R, Stops P, EP 0.785.185 Al (23–7–1997)Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Dingerdissen U, Eller K, EP 0.752.411 A2Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. M. M. Blauwhoff
  • J. W. Gosselink
  • E. P. Kieffer
  • S. T. Sie
  • W. H. J. Stork

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations