The Use of Heuristics in the Design of GPS Networks

  • Peter Dare
  • Hussain Saleh
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 118)


One aspect of GPS network design concerns the logistics of the survey. Others aspects include location of stations, length of time for session observations. Efficient logistics enables a survey to be carried out with a lower cost and/or shorter time. A significant influence on the efficiency of the survey comes from the order in which the sessions are observed (the schedule). Previous work has shown that, given a list of sessions, the optimal schedule can be determined given the cost of moving receivers between points and the list of sessions. The solution was obtained by transforming the problem into a Multiple Travelling Salesman Problem enabling more than one working period to be included in the solution. However, the method was only suitable for relatively small networks.

To enable larger networks to be solved, the use of heuristic techniques within the field of Operational Research have been investigated. Heuristics enable optimal or near-optimal solutions to be found for very large problems with a reasonable computation time — optimality, however, is not guaranteed. This paper will describe one particular heuristic (Simulated Annealing) and show how it can be applied to the logistics design of GPS networks.


Optimal Schedule Travelling Salesman Problem Cost Matrix Session Observation Working Period 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Craymer, M. (1991). Personal communication.Google Scholar
  2. Dare, P. (1995). Optimal Design of GPS Networks: Operational Procedures. PhD Thesis, University of East London.Google Scholar
  3. Little, J.D., K.G. Murty, D.W. Sweeney and C. Karel. (1963). An Algorithm for theGoogle Scholar
  4. Traveling Salesman Problem. Operations Research, 11, 972–989.Google Scholar
  5. Reeves, C. (1993). (editor) Modern Heuristic Techniques for Combinatorial Problems. Blackwell Scientific Publications.Google Scholar
  6. Saleh, H. and P. Dare. (1997).). “A Simulated Annealing Approach for Designing a GPS Surveying Network”. Paper presented at the 2nd Metaheuristic International Conference (MIC’97), Sophia-Antipolis, France, July 21–24.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Dare
    • 1
  • Hussain Saleh
    • 1
  1. 1.School of SurveyingUniversity of East LondonDagenham, EssexEngland

Personalised recommendations