As shown in Fig. 15.15, the energy point ≃ 1 GeV separates the QCD scale into regions of large and small running coupling α s (μ), or equivalently, of low and high energy, or light and heavy particles. The world of heavy flavors begins with the charm quark and the τ lepton and extends to the bottom and top quarks in the fermionic sector. The list of heavy particles in the standard model also includes the weak bosons W± and Z0, and the neutral Higgs boson. Of these, only the Higgs boson is still not experimentally observed at present.
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Suggestions for Further Reading
QCD corrections to weak interaction, operator product expansion
Heavy flavor symmetry
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