Ecophysiology, Nitrogen Fixation and Plant Stress

  • Gerald E. Wickens
Part of the Adaptations of Desert Organisms book series (DESERT ORGAN.)


Botanists have long been aware of the interrelation between ecology and physiology, e.g. Clements (1907), Schimper (1960), but it was apparently Billings (1957) who first formalised the union with the terms ‘physiological ecology’ and ‘ecological physiology’. The term ‘eco-physiology’, however, was first introduced in 1962 at UNESCO’s Montpellier Symposium where it was defined by Eckardt (1965) in the English summary of his paper as follows:

“Eco-physiology, in the acceptance of the term adopted in the proceedings of the Montpellier Symposium, deals with all relationships existing between living beings and their physical and biotic environment. It thus embraces not only the study of the adaptive structural and functional features which link the individual plant or animal to its specific environment, but also that of all forms of transfer and transformation of energy and mass connected with the dynamics of the ecosystem.”


Nitrogen Fixation Nodulating Zone Brachiaria Decumbens Summer Rainfall Region Season Water Supply 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald E. Wickens
    • 1
  1. 1.The TriangleAylsham, NorfolkUK

Personalised recommendations