First Panel Discussion: Scientific and Industrial Partnerships

  • Michel Callon
  • Jean Gabolde
Conference paper

Abstract

Interaction between research activities and various sectors of socio-economic activity is constantly growing. This is what the economists now call the research and innovation system. Schumpeter’s linear model is being faulted because it cannot represent current activities in research, technical development and innovation. Yet many of the practices used in research, like programming, are still based on the linear modeL Attempts to climb out of the rut dug by a half a century of R&D policies, measured by categories described in the Frascati manual, have met with especially resistant administrative and financial red tape. The task forces that have been set to work in Brussels during the last year actually constitute an effort to introduce interactive planning, in other words, to define projects that serve several EU countries and interact in their operations with other programmes, rather than being carried out alone, concomitantly. These task forces have been established to hold consultations with specialised groups composed of research scientists, end users, services that participate in preparing regulations, and the citizens’ representatives.

Keywords

Fermentation Europe Conglomerate Erwinia 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michel Callon
    • 1
  • Jean Gabolde
    • 1
  1. 1.European CommissionBelgium

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