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Intelligence: A Nomadic Concept

  • Clairette Karakash

Abstract

The first attempts to automate human intelligence date from the fifties. Three factors had to be combined to make the undertaking at all possible: A concept, a tool, and a language. The concept or logical principle was first stated by A. Turing (1937), and may be summarized as follows: Any formalizable process can be reproduced by a machine capable of performing an ordered series of operations on a finite number of symbols. The tool was supplied by J. von Neumann, the inventor of pre-recorded programs1, the predecessors to modern software systems. All that remained to be invented for digital computers to be capable of processing non-numerical symbols was one or several languages intermediate between a binary system and natural language. Once these conditions were satisfied, the hope was to automate any operation of the human mind, assuming that the latter could be described as a series of operations leading to the performance of a task. Attempts were therefore made to computerize problem-solving, theorem proofs, games of strategy, interlinguistic translation, and shape recognition.

Keywords

Virtual World Knowledge System Human Mind Human Intelligence Collective Intelligence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clairette Karakash
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Hermeneutics and SystematicsUniversity of NeuchâtelNeuchâtelSwitzerland

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