Intelligence: A Nomadic Concept

  • Clairette Karakash


The first attempts to automate human intelligence date from the fifties. Three factors had to be combined to make the undertaking at all possible: A concept, a tool, and a language. The concept or logical principle was first stated by A. Turing (1937), and may be summarized as follows: Any formalizable process can be reproduced by a machine capable of performing an ordered series of operations on a finite number of symbols. The tool was supplied by J. von Neumann, the inventor of pre-recorded programs1, the predecessors to modern software systems. All that remained to be invented for digital computers to be capable of processing non-numerical symbols was one or several languages intermediate between a binary system and natural language. Once these conditions were satisfied, the hope was to automate any operation of the human mind, assuming that the latter could be described as a series of operations leading to the performance of a task. Attempts were therefore made to computerize problem-solving, theorem proofs, games of strategy, interlinguistic translation, and shape recognition.


Virtual World Knowledge System Human Mind Human Intelligence Collective Intelligence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agre, P.E. (1988): The dynamic structure of everyday life, MIT Technical Report 1085 (Cambridge MA)Google Scholar
  2. Amit, D. (1989) : Modeling Brain Function. The World of Attractor Neural Networks (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge MA)MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Andler, D. (1992) :“From paleo to neo-connectionism”, in: New Perspectives on Cybernetics, ed. by J. van der Vijver (Kluwer, Dordrecht), pp. 125–146Google Scholar
  4. Atlan, H. (1986): A tort et à raison. Intercritique de la science et du mythe (Seuil, Paris)Google Scholar
  5. Bateson, G. (1972): Steps to an Ecology of Mind (Ballantine Books, New York)Google Scholar
  6. Bourret, P., Reggia, J. and Samuelides, M. (1991): Réseaux neuronaux. Une approche connexionniste de l’intelligence artificielle (Teknea, Toulouse / Marseille / Barcelone)Google Scholar
  7. Clark, A. (1989) : Microcognition: Philosophy, Cognitive Science and Parallel Distributed Processing (MIT Press, Cambridge MA)Google Scholar
  8. Davis, R., Lenat, D.B. (1982): Knowledge-Based Systems in Artificial Intelligence (McGraw-Hill, New York)MATHGoogle Scholar
  9. Dobzhansky, Th. (1966) : L’homme en évolution (Flammarion, Paris)Google Scholar
  10. Ducret, J.-J. (1991) :“Constructivisme génétique, cybernétique et intelligence artificielle”, Cahiers de la Fondation Archives Jean Piaget 11, 19–40Google Scholar
  11. Ducret, J.-J. (1991): “L’intelligence peut-elle être artificielle? Epistémologie génétique et intelligence artificielle, vecteurs d’une nouvelle conception de l’homme”, Le Nouveau Golem 1, 13–32Google Scholar
  12. Dupuy, J.-P. (1994) : Aux origines des sciences cognitives (La Découverte, Paris)Google Scholar
  13. Edelman, G. (1992) : Bright Air, Brillant Fire: on the Matter of the Mind (Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, London)Google Scholar
  14. Faihe, Y., Müller, J.-P. and Rodriguez, M. (1996) :“Designing Behaviour-based Learning Robots”, submitted to IROSGoogle Scholar
  15. Gaussier, Ph. and Zrehen, S. (1994) :“A Topological Map for On-Line Learning: Emergence of Obstacle Avoidance in a Mobile Robot”, in Proceedings of From Animals to Animats (MIT Press, Cambridge MA)Google Scholar
  16. Grimson, W. E. L. and Patil, R. S. (1987): AI in the 1980s and beyond (MIT Press, Cambridge MA), pp. 343–363Google Scholar
  17. Haase, K. (1984): ARLO: The Implementation of a Language for Describing Representation Languages, Bachelor’s Thesis, Department of Philosophy and Linguistics, MITGoogle Scholar
  18. Haugeland, J. (1985): Artificial intelligence, the very idea (MIT Press, Cambridge MA), pp. 60–65Google Scholar
  19. Heims, S. (1980) : John von Neumann and Norbert Wiener. From Mathematics to the Technologies of Life and Death (MIT Press, Cambridge MA)MATHGoogle Scholar
  20. Heims, S. (1991) : The Cybernetics Group (MIT Press, Cambridge MA)Google Scholar
  21. Huitéma, Ch. (1995) : Et Dieu créa l’Internet (Eyrolles, Paris)Google Scholar
  22. Le Moigne, J.-L. (1995): Les épistémologies constructivistes (Presses Universitaires de France, Paris)Google Scholar
  23. Lévy, P. (1990): Les technologies de l’intelligence. L’avenir de la pensée à l’ère informatique (La Découverte, Paris)Google Scholar
  24. Lévy, P. (1995): Qu’est-ce que le virtuel? (La Découverte, Paris)Google Scholar
  25. Mallery, J.C., Hurwitz, R., and Duffy, G. (1986): “Hermeneutics: From textual Explication to Computer Understanding?” MIT, AI Memo 871, 1–32, published in: The Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, 1987, edited by S.C. Shapiro (Wiley, New York)Google Scholar
  26. Memmi, D. (1990) :“Connexionnisme, intelligence artificielle et modélisation cognitive”, Intellectica 9/10Google Scholar
  27. Minsky, M. (1975) :“A Framework for Representing Knowledge”, in: The Psychology of Computer Vision (McGraw-Hill, New York), pp. 211–277Google Scholar
  28. Minsky, M. (1986): The Society of Mind (Simon and Schuster, New York)Google Scholar
  29. Müller, J.-P. and Rodriguez, M. (1995): “Representation and Planning for Behaviorbased Robot”, in: Environment Modeling and Motion Planning for Autonomous Robots, edited by H. Bunke and T. Kanade (World Scientific, Singapore)Google Scholar
  30. Müller, J.-P. and Pecchiari, P. (1996) :“Un modèle de systèmes d’agents autonomes situés: application à la déduction automatique”, in: IA distribuée et systèmes multi-agents, ed. by J.-P. Müller and J. Quiqueton (Hermès, Paris)Google Scholar
  31. Penrose, R. (1994): Shadows of the Mind (Oxford University Press, Oxford)Google Scholar
  32. Piaget, J. (1937): La construction du réel chez l’enfant (Delachaux et Niestlé, Neuchâtel)Google Scholar
  33. Proust, J. (1987): “L’intelligence artificielle comme philosophie”, Le Débat 47, 88–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Quéau, Ph. 1993) : Le virtuel. Vertus et vertiges (Champ Vallon, Seyssel)Google Scholar
  35. Quillian, R. (1967) :“Semantic Memory”, in: Semantic Information Processing, (MIT Press, Cambridge MA), pp. 227–270Google Scholar
  36. Reeke, G. and Edelman, G.R. (1989): “Real Brains and Artificial Intelligence”, in: The Artificial Intelligence Debate, ed. by S. Graubard (MIT Press, Cambridge MA)Google Scholar
  37. Ricoeur, P. (1986): Du texte à l’action (Seuil, Paris)Google Scholar
  38. Rorty, R. (1981): Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature (Princeton University Press, Princeton)Google Scholar
  39. Rumelhart, D.E. and McClelland, J.-L. (1986): Parallel distributed Processing. Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition (MIT Press, Cambridge MA)Google Scholar
  40. Schank, R and Abelson, R. (1977) : Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding (Erlbaum, Hillsdale N.J.)MATHGoogle Scholar
  41. Searle, J. (1980) :“Minds, Brains and Programs”, Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 417–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Smolensky, P. (1988) :“On the Proper Treatment of Connectionism”, Behavior and Brain Sciences 11, 1–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Steiner, E.H., Schmidt, P. and Zelinsky-Wibbelt, C. (1988): From Syntax to Semantics; Insights from Machine Translation (Pinter, London)Google Scholar
  44. Stengers, I. (1987) : D’une science à l’autre. Des concepts nomades (Seuil, Paris)Google Scholar
  45. Turing, A. (1937) :“Computability and Lambda-definability”, Journal of Symbolic Logic 2Google Scholar
  46. Van Gelder, T. and Port, R. (1994) : Mind as Motion (MIT Press, Cambridge MA)Google Scholar
  47. Varela, F.J. (1996): Invitation aux sciences cognitives (Seuil, Paris), (revised edition of: Cognitive Science. A Cartography of Current Ideas, 1988) Google Scholar
  48. Von Neumann, J. (1966) : Theory of Self-Reproducing Automata (University of Illinois Press, Chicago)Google Scholar
  49. Waltz, D.L. (1989): Semantic Structures, Advances in Natural Language Processing (Erlbaum, Hillsdale N.J.)Google Scholar
  50. Zrehen, S. (1995): Elements of Brain Design for Autonomous Agents, Bachelor’s Thesis, EPFL, Department of Informatics (Lausanne, Switzerland)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Clairette Karakash
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Hermeneutics and SystematicsUniversity of NeuchâtelNeuchâtelSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations