Observations in the solar—terrestrial environment are made from the ground, such as magnetic field measurements, in situ from rockets and satellites, and by means of remote sensing, for instance radio sounding of the ionosphere. Measured parameters cover fields and their fluctuations, plasmas, energetic particles, and electromagnetic radiation. In this chapter we give a brief overview of the basic principles of field, plasma, and particle measurements.
KeywordsPermeability Anisotropy Radar
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