Soils of the tropical forests of Leyte, Philippines I: Weathering, soil characteristics, classification and site qualities

  • Reinhold Jahn
  • Victor B. Asio
Conference paper


Two forest soils representative of two research sites in Leyte, Philippines, are described as to their physical, chemical and mineralogical properties. The soils, an Andosol and an Alisol, which have developed from intermediate quaternary and pleistocene to pliocene volcanoclastics, respectively, represent a chronosequence of soils. The course of weathering is explained in terms of intensity and extent of the turnover of elements, loss of basic elements, desilification and development of pedogenic minerals. The site properties are described quantitatively in terms of rootability, availability of air, water and nutrients, as well as nutrient reserves. Both soils are highly weathered and show more or less the same percentage of desilification. The loss of basic elements is slightly lower in the Andosol than in the Alisol. In addition, there is a distinctly smaller loss of P and Mn in the Andosol. By calculating the turnover and losses of elements in kg per m2, the much higher extent of weathering in the Alisol can be illustrated. The clay mineral association is dominated by imogolite in the Andosol and by halloysite and kaolinite in the Alisol. The progress of mineral alteration can also be observed from the Fe-mineralogy. Both soils have excellent physical qualitites regarding rootability and aeration and water supply to plants. The limiting factor for plant nutrition is the very low amount of available P in both soils, which is aggravated further by high P-retention in the Andosol.


Site Quality Humid Tropic Lower Horizon Land Evaluation Fine Earth 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alaily, F. (1984): Heterogene Ausgangsgesteine von Böden: Die Rekonstruierung und Bilanzierung von Böden aus heterogenen Ausgangsgesteinen. Landschaftsentwicklung und Umweltforschung, Schriftenr. d. FB Landschaftsentwicklung d. TU Berlin 25. 236 pp.Google Scholar
  2. Barrera, A., Arisorenas, I. and Tingzon, J. (1954): Soil Survey of Leyte Province, Philippines. Departm. of Agric. and Natural Resources, Manila, 103 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Barshad, I. (1964): Chemistry of soil development. In: Bear (Editor): Chemistry of the soil. 2. Aufl. Reinhold Publ. Corps. New York, 515 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Black, C. A.(1965) (editor): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Amer. Soc. Agron. Monograph No. 9. Madison Wisconsin, 1572 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Blakemore, Searle and Daly (1981): Methods for chemical analysis of soils. New Zealand Soil Bureau Scientific Report 10 A.Google Scholar
  6. Blume, H.-P. and Schwertmann, U. (1969): Genetic evaluation of profile distribution of aluminum, iron and manganese oxides. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 33, p. 438–444. Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  7. Caldas Fernandez, E., Tejedor Salguero, M. L. and Quantin, P. (1982): Suelos de Regiones Volcanicas —Tenerife — Islas Canarias. Coleccion Viera y Clavijo IV, Santa Cruz de Tenerife. 250 pp.Google Scholar
  8. FAO (1976): A Framework for Land Evaluation. Soils Bulletin 32. Rome, 72 pp.Google Scholar
  9. FAO-UNESCO (1988): Soil map of the world — Revised Legend. World Soil Resources Report 60, Rome, 119 pp.Google Scholar
  10. ISRIC(1986): Procedures for Soil Analyses (van Reenwijk, L. P., editor). Wageningen, 106 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Jahn, R. (1988): Böden Lanzarotes — Vorkommen, Genese und Eigenschaften von Böden aus Vulkaniten im semiariden Klima Lanzarotes (Kanarische Inseln). Hohenheimer Arbeiten. Ulmer, Stuttgart, 257 pp.Google Scholar
  12. Köppen, W. (1923): Die Klimate der Erde, Grundriss der Klimakunde. W. de Gruyter & Co., Berlin und Leipzig, 369 pp.Google Scholar
  13. Mekaru, T. and Uehara, G. (1972): Anion adsorption in ferruginous tropical soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc., Vol. 36, p. 296–300.Google Scholar
  14. Miehlich, G. (1991): Chronosequences of volcanic ash soils. Hamburger Bodenkundliche Arbeiten 15. Hamburg, 207 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Nelson, D. W. and Sommers, L. E. (1982): Total Carbon, Organic Carbon and Organic Matter. In Page, A. L. (editor): Methods of Soil Analysis (2. edit.). Part II. Chemical and Microbiological Properties. Amer. Soc. Agron. Inc. and Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Madison Wisconsin, p. 539–594.Google Scholar
  16. Pa Ho Hsu (1989): Aluminium hydroxides and oxihydroxides. In: Dixon, J. B. and Weed, S. B. (editors): Minerals in soil environments. SSSA, Madison, Wisconsin, p. 331–378.Google Scholar
  17. Pariiitt, R. L. and Wilson, A. D. (1985): Estimation of allophane and halloysite in three sequences of volcanic soils, New Zealand. CATENA SUPPLEMENT 7, Braunschweig, p. 1–8.Google Scholar
  18. PCARR 1980: Standard methods for soil, plant tissue, water and fertilizer. Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research. Los Banos, Laguna. 194 pp.Google Scholar
  19. Salguero Tejedor, M. L., Mendoza, J. C., Rodriguez, R. A. and Caldas, E. E. (1985): Polygenesis on deeply weathered pliocene basalt, Gomera (Canary Islands): From ferrallitization to salinization. CATENA SUPPLEMENT 7, Braunschweig, p. 131–151.Google Scholar
  20. Schlichting, E., Blume, H.-P. and Stahr, K. (1995): Bodenkundliches Praktikum. Blackwell, 295 pp.Google Scholar
  21. USDA (1992): Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 5th Edition. SMSS Technical Monograph No. 19. Pocahontas Pr., Blacksburg, Virg., 541 pp.Google Scholar
  22. Wada, K. (1986) (Editor): Ando Soils in Japan. Kyushu University Press, Japan, 276 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Wischmeier, W H. and Smith, D. D. (1978): Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses — a Guide to Conservation Planning. Agriculture Handbook No. 537, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington D.C., 58 pp.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reinhold Jahn
    • 1
  • Victor B. Asio
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Soil Science (310)University of HohenheimStuttgartGermany
  2. 2.Dept. of Agronomy and Soil ScienceVisayas State College of Agriculture, ViSCABaybay, LeytePhilippines

Personalised recommendations