The Nucleus as a Laboratory for Studying Fundamental Processes

  • Kris Heyde


Because of its structure of protons and neutrons which, in the bound nucleus, are sensitive to the strong, weak, and electromagnetic interactions, the atomic nucleus can serve as a very specific “laboratory” for testing how these basic interactions behave together. It should be possible to probe physics at the intersections of nuclear physics with fields as varied as particle physics (tests of particle properties, tests of the standard model, …), atomic physics, quantum physics and astrophysics (see Fig. 6.1) . The very important issue of nuclear astrophysics will be discussed in much more detail in Chap. 7.


Neutrino Oscillation Electric Dipole Moment Beta Decay Solar Neutrino Electron Neutrino 
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Further Reading

  1. 6.1
    We begin by referring to the references of Chap. 1 which include a number of books concentrating on general nuclear physics. There, beta decay is presented in some detail. Because beta decay is a particularly important issue a number of books completely devoted to this topic, for example, are given: Holstein, B. (1989) Weak Interactions (Princeton University Press, Princeton, N. J .)Google Scholar
  2. 6.2
    Strachan, C. (1969) The Theory of Beta Decay (Pergamon, New York)Google Scholar
  3. 6.3
    Wu, C.S., Moszkowski, S.A. (1966) Beta Decay (Wiley, New York)Google Scholar
  4. 6.4
    Here, we are particularly interested in the end-point of the energy spectrum giving information about a possible non-vanishing neutrino mass. This is discussed in detail by Holzschuh, E. (1992) Rep. Prog. Phys. 55, 1035ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 6.5
    Holzschuh, E., Fritschi, M., Kündig, W. (1992) Phys. Lett. B287, 381Google Scholar
  6. 6.6
    The issue of double beta decay is most important. Geochemical evidence has existed for quite some time but the detailed observation of double beta decay under controlled laboratory conditions is quite recent. We first give a popular text, then some review papers, and a result from recent experiments. Moe, M.K., Rosen, S.P. (1989) Scientific American, November, p. 30Google Scholar
  7. 6.7
    Haxton. W.C. (1983) Comments Nucl. Part. Phvs. 11, 41Google Scholar
  8. 6.8
    Doi, M., Kotani, T., Takasugi, E. (1985) Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 83, 1ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 6.9
    Avignone III, F.T., Brodzinski, R.L. (1988) Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 21, 99ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Haxton, W.C., Stephenson Jr., G.J. (1984) Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 12, 409ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 6.11
    Tomoda, T. (1991) Rep. Progr. Phys. 54, 53ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 6.12
    Beck, M. et al. (1993) Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2853ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 6.13
    Neutrino physics has become a very extended domain in physics with topics including neutrino mass, neutrino oscillations, solar neutrino production and detection, etc. We cannot give here a detailed account of the many directions of research but we first refer to some books containing extensive reference lists, to a number of popular accounts, and to some recent review papers and a number of the most basic articles that appeared in the scientific literature. Boehm, F., Vogel, P. (1992) Physics of Massive Neutrinos, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 6.14
    Bahcall, J.N. (1989) Neutrino Astrophysics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)Google Scholar
  15. 6.15
    Winter, K. (ed.) (1991) Neutrino Physics (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge)Google Scholar
  16. 6.16
    Bahcall, J.N., Davis Jr., R., Wolfenstein, L. (1988) Nature, August 334, p. 487ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Bahcall, J.N. (1994) Beam Line , A Periodical of Particle Physics, Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Fall, 10Google Scholar
  18. 6.18
    CERN Courier (1995) June, 13Google Scholar
  19. 6.19
    Elliott, S.R., Robertson, R.G.H. (1991) Contem. Phys. 32, No. 4, 251ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Haxton, W.C. (1986) Comments Nucl. Part. Phys. 16, 95Google Scholar
  21. 6.21
    Lemonick, M.D. (1996) Time, April 8, p. 46Google Scholar
  22. 6.22
    Schwarzchild, B. (1986) Physics Today, June, p. 17Google Scholar
  23. 6.23
    Van Klinken, J. (1995) Ned. Tijdschr. Nat. 11, 199 (In Dutch)Google Scholar
  24. 6.24
    Langanke, K., Barnes, L.A. (1996) Adv. Nucl. Phys. 22, 173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 6.25
    Oberauer, L., Feilitsch von, F. (1992) Rep. Prog. Phys. 55, 1093ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 6.26
    Athanassopoulos, C. et al. (1995) Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2650ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 6.27
    Bethe, H.A. (1986) Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1305ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 6.28
    Bethe, H.A. (1989) Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 837ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 6.29
    Hampel, W. et al. (1996) Phys. Lett. B388, 384 — Most recent GALLEX analysesGoogle Scholar
  30. 6.30
    Hill, J.E. (1995) Phvs. Rev. Lett. 75, 2654ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 6.31
    Mikheyev, S.P., Smirnov, A. (1988) Phys. Lett. B200, 560Google Scholar
  32. 6.32
    Wolfenstein, L. (1979) Phys. Rev. D20, 2634ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 6.33
    We also mention a couple of review papers that concentrate more on observational aspects of neutrino astrophysics, neutrino—nucleus interactions, and theory of supernovae, thereby putting neutrino processes in the context of astrophysics and astronomy. Brown, G.E. (ed.) (1988) Phys. Rep. 163, 1–204Google Scholar
  34. 6.34
    Koshiba, M. (1992) Phys. Rep. 220, 229ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 6.35
    Kubodera, K., Nozawa, S. (1994) Int. J. Mod. Phys. E3, 101ADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 6.36
    The implications of free neutron decay for our basic understanding of the standard model are discussed in a recent book presenting neutron properties at length with many references Byrne, J. (1994) Neutrons, Nuclei and Matter (Institute of Physics, Bristol)Google Scholar
  37. 6.37
    We also mention a recent popular account of the many facets of the neutron and its decay, as well as two articles about experiments that have set error bars as small as possible: Gribbin, J. (1993) New Scientist, March, p. 41Google Scholar
  38. 6.38
    Byrne, J. et al. (1990) Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 289ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 6.39
    Stolzenberg, H. et al. (1990) Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3104ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 6.40
    The subject of testing fundamental symmetries [parity invariance (P), time reversal (T) , charge conjugation combined with parity (CP), ...] spans a large field of physics, too. We refer to a number of books in order to accommodate the major part of the older literature on this vast subject: Roberson, N.R., Gould, C.R., Bowman, C.D. (eds.) (1988) Tests of Time Reversal Invariance (World Scientific, Teaneck, NJ)Google Scholar
  41. 6.41
    Sachs, R.G. (1987) The Physics of Time Reversal Invariance (Chicago University Press, Chicago)Google Scholar
  42. 6.42
    A number of review papers concentrating on more recent efforts to test the above symmetries are: Adelberger, E.G., Haxton, W.C. (1985) Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 35, 501ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 6.43
    Henley, E.M. (1969) Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 19, 367ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 6.44
    Henley, E.M. (1987) Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 20, 387ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 6.45
    Van Klinken, J. (1996) J. Phys. G 22, 1239ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 6.46
    Wolfenstein, L. (1986) Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 36, 187Google Scholar
  47. 6.47
    Some interesting, more technical articles are given too: Alfimenkov, V.P. et al. (1982) JETP Lett. 35, 51ADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 6.48
    Hayes, A.C. (1996) TTASCC-P-96–2 PreprintGoogle Scholar
  49. 6.49
    Müller, A., Harney, H.L. (1992) Phys. Rev. C45, 1955Google Scholar
  50. 6.50
    Severijns, N. et al. (1993) Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 4047ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 6.51
    Weidenmüller, H.A. (1991) Nucl. Phys. A522, 293cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 6.52
    Finally we give a few more popular accounts: Boehm, F. (1983) Comments Nucl. Part. Phys. 11, 251Google Scholar
  53. 6.53
    Rosner, J.L. (1987) Comments Nucl. Part. Phys. 17, 93Google Scholar
  54. 6.54
    6.54 Wolfenstein, L. (1985) Comments Nucl. Part. Phys. 14, 135Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kris Heyde
    • 1
  1. 1.Vakgroep Subatomaire en Stralingsfysica, Institute for Theoretical PhysicsUniversity of GentGentBelgium

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