Tumor Suppressor Genes
The isolation of the first human tumor suppressor gene in 1986 fueled an immediate interest in gene replacement therapy as a novel treatment modality for human cancers (Friend et al. 1986) . The functional groundwork for the efficacy of this avenue of approach came from studies on the genetics of cancer using somatic cell genetics. The first report, in 1969, of the suppression of malignancy in hybrid cells between tumorigenic and nontumorigenic mouse cells provided evidence that normal cells possess genetic information capable of reversing many transformed features of tumor cells (Harris et al. 1969) . Since that initial study, many investigators have shown that introduction of normal genetic information into human cancer cells can cause suppression of cell growth in vitro and in vivo (Stanbridge 1992). Thus, the challenge facing scientists interested in the development of cancer gene therapies lies in the optimal delivery of potent tumor suppressor genes into tumor cells in vivo which can render them quiescent or prime them for destruction by other methods. This chapter will cover the identification of known tumor suppressor genes as well as the strategies to isolate novel tumor suppressor genes with different mechanisms of action.
KeywordsTumor Suppressor Gene Cancer Gene Therapy Tumor Suppressor Activity Metastasis Suppressor Gene Somatic Cell Genetic
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