Watermarks: Generation, Control, and Removal

  • Haruo Itoh
Chapter

Abstract

After dilute HF cleaning, when a wafer is rinsed and dried naturally stains arise on the parts where there were water droplets. These are called watermarks or drying spots. During the typical wafer drying process in semiconductor manufacturing, watermarks are generated for a variety of reasons. In spin-drying, it has been reported that they are generated between the lines and in U- and V-grooves. Watermarks become masks in successive etching processes and hinder the film from depositing or forming normally, and they damage several device characteristics. Therefore, in the semiconductor fabrication process, how to reduce the number of watermarks to zero is an issue of wafer cleaning and drying technology.

Keywords

Nitride Isopropyl Alcohol Isopropyl Polysilicon 

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References

  1. [1]
    M. Watanabe, M. Hamano, and M. Harazono: The role of atmospheric oxygen and water in the generation of watermarks on the silicon surface in cleaning processes, Materials Science and Engineering B4, 401 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    T. Ohsako et al Proc. of the 41st Spring Meeting of Applied Physical Society, Japan, No. 2, 706 (29-ZQ-1), (1994) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
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    K. Wolke et al Marangoni wafer drying avoids disadvantages, Solid State Technology, August, 87 (1996).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Haruo Itoh
    • 1
  1. 1.HitachiJapan

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