• H. W. E. van Bruggen
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 4)


Perennial water plants with a rootstock or rhizome. Leaves in a rosette, submerged and/or floating, very seldom emergent. Inflorescence on a long scape emerging above the water surface, in bud enveloped by a caducous or (rarely) persistent spathe, and composed of 1 or 2–15 spikes. Plants usually monoecious, seldom dioecious or apogamous. Flowers hypogynous, sessile, more or less spirally arranged on the inflorescence axis, or secund. Tepals (1-)2–6, absent in female specimens of dioecious species. Stamens usually 6, absent in female specimens of dioecious species and often in apomictic specimens. Anthers 2-thecate, 4-sporangiate, with extrorse longitudinal dehiscence. Pollen probably always yellow. Carpels usually 3, free, sessile, 1-locular, pear-shaped, narrowed into the stylulus with a stigmatic ridge on the ventral side, rudimentary and sterile in male specimens of dioecious specimens, and sometimes more numerous in apomictic specimens. Ovules 2–12 per ovary, basal or marginal. Fruit a follicle with a mostly distinct, lateral or terminal, often curved beak. Seeds without endosperm.


Seed Coat Pollen Morphology Female Specimen Male Specimen Dioecious Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Selected Bibliography

  1. A more comprehensive bibliography can be found in van Bruggen (1985).Google Scholar
  2. Andrejev, A. 1989. Aponogeton czokusianus A. Andrejev sp. nov. In: Zhilin, S.G. (ed.) History of the development of the temperate forest flora in Kazakhstan, USSR from the Oligocene to Early Miocene. Bot. Rev. 55: 292.Google Scholar
  3. Bruggen, H.W.E. van 1985. Monograph of the genus Aponogeton (Aponogetonaceae). Bibl. Bot. 137. 76 pp., 23 pl.Google Scholar
  4. Bruggen, H.W.E. van 1987. Aponogetonaceae. In: Dassanayake, M.D. (ed.), Rev. Handb. Flora Ceylon Vol. 6: 3–16. New Delhi: Amerind.Google Scholar
  5. Bruggen, H.W.E. van 1990. Die Gattung Aponogeton ( Aponogetonaceae ). Aqua-Planta Sonderheft 2.Google Scholar
  6. Bruggen, H.W.E. van 1991. Neue Erkentnisse über die Aponogetonaceae. Aqua-Planta 16: 46–54.Google Scholar
  7. Harris, P.J., Hartley, R.D. 1980. See general references.Google Scholar
  8. Les, D.H., Haynes, R.R. 1995. Systematics of subclass Alismatidae: a synthesis of approaches. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution, Vol. 2. London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 353–377.Google Scholar
  9. Lye, K.A. 1986. The geographical variation in Aponogeton abyssinicus A. Rich. Lydia 1: 67–80.Google Scholar
  10. Pneva, G.P. 1988. Eine neue tertiäre Art aus der Gattung Aponogeton ( Aponogetonaceae) aus Kazakhstan und Karakalpakiya, Bot. Zh. 73: 1597–1597 (in Russian).Google Scholar
  11. Selling, O.H. 1947. Aponogetonaceae in the Cretaceous of South America. Sven. Bot. Tidskr. 41: 182.Google Scholar
  12. Takhtajan, A.L. 1982. See general references.Google Scholar
  13. Tomlinson, P.B. 1982. Helobiae (Alismatidae). In: Metcalfe, C.R. (ed.) Anatomy of the monocotyledons, Vol. 7. Oxford: Clarendon Press, pp. 198–225.Google Scholar
  14. Yadav, S.R. 1993. Mechanism of apomixis in Aponogeton decaryi Jumelle. Phytomorphology 43: 201–207.Google Scholar
  15. Yadav, S.R. 1995. Die Hybride zwischen Aponogeton decaryi Jumelle und Aponogeton satarensis Raghavan, Kulkarni Yaday. Aqua-Planta 20: 71–80.Google Scholar
  16. Zhilin, S.G. 1974. Die erste tertiäre Art aus der Gattung Aponogeton (Aponogetonaceae). Bot. Zh. 59: 1203–1206 (in Russian).Google Scholar

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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

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  • H. W. E. van Bruggen

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