• D. W. Stevenson
  • M. Colella
  • B. Boom
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 4)


Terrestrial, epiphytic, or amphibic perennial herbs with an erect or prostrate rhizome. Leaves unifacial to bifacial, condensed on a short stem, with an open asymmetrical conduplicate sheath; distichously or spirodistichously arranged; rarely petiolate, the petiole and the leaf blade occasionally bearing short spines; ligules rarely present. Inflorescences solitary or crowded, axillary or terminal, on leafless scapes, often subtended by 2 or more spathaceous bracts, globose or flat; the spikelets composing the inflorescences bearing numerous coriaceous bracts and a terminal flower; inflorescences that have an indeterminate main axis and lateral cymose units are more common than those with a determinate main axis and cymose lateral units (Monotremeae); flowers trimerous, hypogynous, perfect, and actinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic; sepals 3; petals 3, occasionally spotted; stamens 3 + 3, tetrasporangiate, connate at the base or adnate to the corolla tube, basifixed; anthers sometimes bearing terminal appendages, dehiscing by 4, 2, or 1 apical or subapically lateral pores, extrose or latrose; ovary syncarpous, superior, 3-locular or 1-locular by abortion; style 1, erect; stigma capitate, often minutely ciliate; ovules 1–8 per locule, anatropous, bitegmic, and crassinucellate; placentation axile or basal; fruit a septicidal capsule; seeds globose, prismatic, or oblong, occasionally bearing appendages; endosperm containing abundant starch; embryo lenticular, at micropylar end with flat surface appressed to endosperm; mechanical tissue of seed coat derived from both integuments.


Corolla Tube Outer Integument Leaf Axil Spongy Tissue Partial Inflorescence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Arber, A. 1922. Leaves of the Farinosae. Bot. Gaz. 74: 80 - 94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Augier, J. 1956. Les glucides de quelques monocotylédones de l’ordre des Farinosae. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 103: 251 - 253.Google Scholar
  3. Carlquist, S. 1961. Pollen morphology of Rapateaceae. Aliso 5: 39 - 66.Google Scholar
  4. Carlquist, S. 1966. Anatomy of Rapateaceae: roots and stems. Phytomorphology 16: 17 - 38.Google Scholar
  5. Carlquist, S. 1969. Rapateaceae. In: Tomlinson, P.B., Anatomy of the monocotyledons (Metcalfe, C.R., ed.), Vol. 3. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, pp. 128 - 145.Google Scholar
  6. Chase, M.W. et al. 1995. See general references.Google Scholar
  7. Cheadle, V., Kosakai, H. 1982. Occurrence and specialization of vessels in Xyridales. Nord. J. Bot. 2: 97 - 109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chenegry, E.M. 1949. Aluminum in the plant world. Part II. Monocotyledons and gymnosperms. Kew Bull. 1949: 463 - 466.Google Scholar
  9. Cronquist, A. 1981. See general references.Google Scholar
  10. Dahlgren, R. et al. 1985. See general references.Google Scholar
  11. Duvall, M.R., Clegg, M.T., Chase, M.W., et al. 1993. Phylogenetic hypoteheses for the monocotyledons constructed from rbcL sequence data. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 80: 607 - 619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Frölich, D., Barthlott, W. 1988. See general references.Google Scholar
  13. Givnish, T., Evans, T., Sytsma, K. 1994. Molecular evolution and adaptive radiation in South American elements of the plant family Rapateaceae. Am. J. Bot. 81 (6, Suppl.): 158.Google Scholar
  14. Givnish, T., Evans, T., Sytsma, K. 1995. The order Commelinales is polyphyletic and represents a striking case of convergent evolution in monocots. Am. J. Bot. 82 (6, Suppl.): 132.Google Scholar
  15. Huber, O. 1988. Guayana highland versus Guayana lowlands, a reappraisal. Taxon 37: 595 - 614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hutchinson, J. 1973. The families of flowering plants. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  17. Linder, P., Kellogg, E. 1995. Phylogenetic patterns in the commelinid clade. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 473 - 496.Google Scholar
  18. Maguire, B. 1958. Rapateaceae, in: The botany of the Guayana Highland. Part III. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 10: 19 - 49.Google Scholar
  19. Maguire, B. 1965. Rapateaceae. In: The botany of the Guayana Highland. Part VI. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 12: 69 - 102.Google Scholar
  20. Malme, G. 1933a. Beiträge zur Kenntnis der südamerikanischen Xyridazeen. Ark. Bot. 25: 1 - 18.Google Scholar
  21. Malme, G. 1933b. Einige während der zweiten Regnellschen Reise gesammelte Phanerogamen. Ark. Bot. 26A: 1 - 32.Google Scholar
  22. Mangenot, S., Mangenot, G. 1957. Nombres chromosomiques nouveaux chez diverses dicotylédones et monocotylédones d’Afrique occidentale. Bull. Jard. Bot. Etat Brux. 27: 639 - 654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Pilger, R. 1930. Rapateaceae. In: Engler, A. (ed.) Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 2nd edn. 15a. W. Engelmann, Leipzig, pp. 59 - 65.Google Scholar
  24. Stevenson, D., Loconte, H. 1995. Cladistic analysis of monocot families. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 543 - 578.Google Scholar
  25. Steyermark, J.A. 1974. The summit vegetation of Cerro Autana. Biotropica 6: 7 - 13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Steyermark, J.A. 1989. Flora of the Venezuelean Guayana-VI. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 75: 1565 - 1570.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Takhtajan, A. 1997. Diversity and classification of flowering plants. New York: Columbia Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  28. Thorne, R. 1992. Classification and geography of the flowering plants. Bot. Rev. 58: 225 - 348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tiemann, A. 1985. Untersuchungen zur Embryologie, Blütenmorphologie und Systematik der Rapateaceen und der Xyridaceen-Gattung Abolboda (Monocotyledonae). Dissertationes Botanicae, Band 52. Vaduz: J. Cramer.Google Scholar
  30. Venturelli, M., Bouman, F. 1988. Development of ovule and seed in Rapateaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 97: 267 - 294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vogel, S. 1981. Bestäubungskonzepte der Monokotylen und ihr Ausdruck im System. Ber. Dtsch. Bot. Ges. 94: 663 - 675.Google Scholar
  32. Weberling, R. 1989. Morphology of flowers and inflorescences. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  33. Zavada, M. 1983. Comparative morphology of monocot pollen and evolutionary trends of apertures and wall structures. Bot. Rev. 49: 331 - 379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. W. Stevenson
  • M. Colella
  • B. Boom

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations