Advertisement

Alismataceae

  • R. R. Haynes
  • D. H. Les
  • L. B. Holm-Nielsen
Chapter
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 4)

Abstract

Monoecious, polygamous, or dioecious annual or perennial herbs with milky juice, glabrous to stellate pubescent, with floating leaves or emergent, in fresh or brackish waters. Roots fibrous, septate or aseptate, at base of stem or lower nodes. Stems short, erect, cormlike, often with rhizomes, the rhizomes occasionally terminated by tubers, the apices without turions. Leaves basal, sessile, or petiolate; petioles terete to triangular, with sheathing base, the sheath without auricles; blade linear, lanceolate, ovate to rhomboid, with or without pellucid dots or lines, the margins entire or undulate, the apex obtuse, acute, or acuminate, the base either without basal lobes and attenuate, or otherwise truncate, cordate, sagittate, or hastate, with parallel primary veins and reticulate secondary veins. Inflorescences scapose, mostly erect, rarely floating, forming racemes or panicles by verticillate branching, rarely umbellate, without a subtending spathe, bracteate, the bracts whorled, linear, entire, obtuse to acute. Flowers hypogynous, perfect or imperfect, subsessile to long-pedicellate; perianth actinomorphic, of 6 separate segments in 2 whorls, the outer 3 sepal-like, green, persistent, erect, and enclosing flower and fruit or spreading to reflexed, the inner 3 petal-like, delicate, caducous; stamens free, 6, 9, or numerous; if 6, then in pairs alternating with the petals; if 9, then in 2 whorls with outer whorl of 6 and inner whorl of 3; if many, densely but irregularly spaced; anthers tetrasporangiate, extrorse, basifixed or versatile, dehiscing by longitudinal slits; carpels 6-many, free, in 1 whorl or irregularly spaced, each with 1(−2) anatropous basal ovules, rarely (Damasonium) 2-many on marginal placentae; styluli terminal or lateral; stigma linear. Fruits achenes or rarely follicles, mostly numerous. Seeds 1-few, U-shaped; endosperm absent in mature seeds.

Keywords

Staminate Flower Pistillate Flower Royal Botanic Garden Nectar Secretion Submerged Leaf 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Argue, C.L. 1976. Pollen studies in the Alismataceae with special reference to taxonomy. Pollen Spores 18: 157–201.Google Scholar
  2. Björkqvist, I. 1968. Studies in Alisma L. II. Chromosome studies, crossing experiments and taxonomy. Opera Bot. 19: 1–138.Google Scholar
  3. Bogin, C. 1955. Revision of the genus Sagittaria. Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 9: 179–233.Google Scholar
  4. Charlton, W.A., Ahmed, A. 1973. Studies in Alismataceae. III. Floral anatomy of Ranalisma humile. Can. J. Bot. 51: 891–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cook, C.D.K. 1978. Alismataceae. In: Heywood, V. (ed.) Flowering plants of the world. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cronquist, A. 1981. See general references.Google Scholar
  6. Daghlian, C.P. 1981. A review of the fossil record of monocotyledons. Bot. Rev. ( Lancaster ) 47: 517–555.Google Scholar
  7. Dahlgren, R.M.T. et al. 1985. See general references.Google Scholar
  8. Daumann, E. 1965. Insekten-und Windbestäubung bei Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Ein Beitrag zur experimentellen Blütenökologie. Osten.. Bot. Z. 112: 295–310.Google Scholar
  9. Davis, G.L. 1966. See general references.Google Scholar
  10. Fassett, N.C. 1955. Echinodorus of the American tropics. Rhodora 57: 133–212.Google Scholar
  11. Fedorov, A.A. 1969. See general references.Google Scholar
  12. Friis, E.M. 1985. Angiosperm fruits and seeds from the Middle Miocene of Jutland (Denmark). Alismataceae. K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Biol. Skr. 24 (3): 71–73.Google Scholar
  13. Haynes, R.R., Holm-Nielsen, L.B. 1985. A generic treatment of Alismatidae in the neotropics. Acta Amazonica 15 (12): 153–193.Google Scholar
  14. Haynes, R.R., Holm-Nielsen, L.B. 1992. Limnocharitaceae. Flora Neotropica 56: 1–34.Google Scholar
  15. Haynes, R.R., Holm-Nielsen, L.B. 1994. Alismataceae. Flora Neotropica 64: 1–112.Google Scholar
  16. Johri, B.M. et al. 1992. See general references.Google Scholar
  17. Les, D.H., Haynes, R.R. 1995. Systematics of subclass Alismatidae: a synthesis of approaches. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 353–377.Google Scholar
  18. Les, D.H., Schneider E.L. 1995. The Nymphaeales, Alismatidae, and the theory of an aquatic monocotyledon origin. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 23–42.Google Scholar
  19. Les, D.H., Garvin, D.K., Wimpee, C.F. 1993. Phylogenetic studies in the monocot subclass Alismatidae: evidence for a reappraisal of the aquatic order Najadales. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 2: 304–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Les, D.H., Cleland, M.A., Waycott, M. 1997. Phylogenetic studies in Alismatidae II: evolution of marine angiosperms (seagrasses) and hydrophily. Syst. Bot. 22: 443–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Muller, J. 1981. Fossil pollen records of extant angiosperms. Bot. Rev. ( Lancaster ) 47: 1–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Rogers, G.K. 1983. The Alismataceae in the Southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor 64: 383–420.Google Scholar
  23. Singh, V., Sattler, R. 1972. Floral development of Alisma triviale. Can. J. Bot. 50: 619–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Singh, V., Sattler, R. 1973. Nonspiral androecium and gynoecium of Sagittaria latifolia. Can. J. Bot. 51: 1093–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Takhtajan, A.L. 1982. See general references.Google Scholar
  26. Tomlinson, P.B. 1982. Helobiae (Alismatidae). In: Metcalfe C.R. (ed.) Anatomy of the monocotyledons, Vol. VII. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. R. Haynes
  • D. H. Les
  • L. B. Holm-Nielsen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations