• C. Bayer
  • O. Appel
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 4)


Perennial herbs from condensed, sympodial rhizomes; aerial shoots erect, unbranched, hollow except for the nodes, terete or rarely compressed. Leaves distichous; sheath open, more or less ligulate; blade linear-lanceolate with constricted base, pubescent, plicate, the veins anastomosing. Inflorescence terminal, many-flowered, paniculiform, bracteate. Flowers (sub-)sessile, hermaphroditic, actinomorphic, pentacyclic, trimerous. Tepals free or almost so, dry, bractlike with thickened bases, concave, persistent. Stamens free or slightly adnate to the perianth base; anthers basifixed, sagittate, dithecal, introrse, opening by longitudinal slits. Ovary superior, globose, trilocular, each locule containing a single, atropous, apical-axile, pendulous ovule; styluli 3, free or slightly connate at the base; stigmas feathery, papillate. Fruit drupaceous, 3-1-seeded, whitish or reddish to black at maturity. Seeds with copious, starchy endosperm and minute discoid embryo.


Calcium Oxalate Pollen Morphology Royal Botanic Garden Starchy Endosperm Arnold Arbor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Backer, C.A. 1951. Flagellariaceae. In: Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) Flora Malesiana I, 4. Djakarta: Noordhoff Kolff N. V., pp. 245–250.Google Scholar
  2. Baranova, M.A. 1975. Stomatographic study of the Flagel- lariaceae. Bot. Zh. ( Moscow Leningrad ) 60: 1690–1697.Google Scholar
  3. Brongniart, M.M., Gris, A. 1861. Note sur le genre Joinvillea de Gaudichaud et sur la famille des flagellariées. Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 8: 264–269.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell, C.S., Kellogg, E.A. 1986. Sister group relationships of the Poaceae. In: Sonderstrom, T.R., Hilu, K.W., Campbell, C.S., Barkworth, M.E. (eds.) Grass systematics and evolution. International grass symposium. Washington: Smithsonian Press, pp. 217–224.Google Scholar
  5. Chanda, S. 1965. On the pollen morphology of the Flagellariaceae with reference to taxonomy. Trans. Bose Res. Inst. Calcutta 8: 53–55.Google Scholar
  6. Chanda, S. 1966. On the pollen morphology of the Centrolepidaceae, Restionaceae and Flagellariaceae, with special reference to taxonomy. Grana 6: 355–415.Google Scholar
  7. Chanda, S., Rowley, S. 1967. Apertural types in pollen of the Restionaceae and Flagellariaceae. Grana 7: 16–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chase, M.W. et al. 1995, 1995a. See general references.Google Scholar
  9. Cheadle, V.I., Kosakai, H. 1980. Occurrence and specialization of vessels in Commelinales. Phytomorphology 30: 98–117.Google Scholar
  10. Christophersen, E. 1931. Notes on Joinvillea. Bernice P. Bishop Mus. Bull. 9: 2–7.Google Scholar
  11. Dahlgren, R.M.T. et al. 1985. See general references.Google Scholar
  12. Davis, J.I. 1995. A phylogenetic structure for the monocotyledons, as inferred from chloroplast DNA restriction site variation, and a comparison of measures of clade support. Syst. Bot. 20: 503–527.Google Scholar
  13. Degener, O., Degener, I. 1973. Joinvilleaceae. In: Degener, O., Degener, I. (eds.) Flora Hawaiiensis 7.Google Scholar
  14. Doyle, J.J., Davis, J.I., Soreng, R.J., Garvin, D., Anderson, M.J. 1992. Chloroplast DNA inversions and the origin of the grass family (Poaceae). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 89: 7722–7726.Google Scholar
  15. Endress, P.K. 1995. Major evolutionary traits of monocot flowers. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 43–79.Google Scholar
  16. Erdtman, G. 1944. Pollen morphology and plant taxonomy. II. Sven. Bot. Tidskr. 38: 163–168.Google Scholar
  17. Erdtman, G. 1952. See general references.Google Scholar
  18. Hahn, W.J., Givnish, T.J., Sytsma, K.J. 1995. Evolution of the monocot chloroplast inverted repeat: I. Evolution and phylogenetic implications of the ORF 2280 deletion. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 579–587.Google Scholar
  19. Harris, P.J., Hartley, R.D. 1980. See general references.Google Scholar
  20. Kellogg, E.A., Birchler, J.A. 1993. Linking phylogeny and ge-netics: Zea mays as a tool for phylogenetic studies. Syst. Biol. 4: 415–439.Google Scholar
  21. Kellogg, E.A., Linder, H.P. 1995. Phylogeny of Poales. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 511–542.Google Scholar
  22. Kircher, P. 1986. Untersuchungen zur Blüten-und Infloreszenzmorphologie, Embryologie und Systematik der Restionaceen im Vergleich mit Gramineen und verwandten Familien. Diss. Bot. 94.Google Scholar
  23. Lee, D.W., Yap Kim Pin, Lew Foo Yew 1975. Serological evidence on the distinctness of the monocotyledonous families Flagellariaceae, Hanguanaceae and Joinvilleaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 70: 77–81.Google Scholar
  24. Linder, H.P. 1987. The evolutionary history of Poales/ Restionales–a hypothesis. Kew Bull. 4: 297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Linder, H.P., Ferguson, I.K. 1985. On the pollen morphology and phylogeny of the Restionales and Poales. Grana 24: 6576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Linder, H.P., Kellogg, E.A. 1995. Phylogenetic patterns in the Commelinid clade. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 473–496.Google Scholar
  27. Linder, H.P., Rudall, P.J. 1993. The megagametophyte in Anarthria ( Anarthriaceae, Poales) and its implications for the phylogeny of the Poales. Am. J. Bot. 80: 1455–1464.Google Scholar
  28. Manning, J.C., Linder, H.P. 1990. Cladistic analysis of patterns of endothecial thickenings in the Poales/Restionales. Am. J. Bot. 77: 196–210.Google Scholar
  29. Newell, T.K. 1969. A study of the genus Joinvillea (Flagellariaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 50: 527–555.Google Scholar
  30. Newell, T.K., Stone, B.C. 1967. Flagellaria (Chortodes) plicata Hooker fil. is a Joinvillea. Taxon 16: 192–194.Google Scholar
  31. Smith, A.C. 1979. Joinvilleaceae. In: Smith, A.C. (ed.) Flora Vitensis Nova. A new flora of Fiji 1. Honolulu: SB Printers, pp. 289–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Smithson, E. 1956. The comparative anatomy of the Flagellariaceae. Kew Bull. 11: 491–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stevenson, D.W., Loconte, H. 1995. Cladistic analysis of monocot families. In: Rudall, P.J., Cribb, P.J., Cutler, D.F., Humphries, C.J. (eds.) Monocotyledons: systematics and evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp. 543–578.Google Scholar
  34. Stone, B.C. 1981. Nomenclature of Joinvillea (Joinvilleaceae). Gard. Bull. Straits Settlem. III, 34: 223–225.Google Scholar
  35. Tomlinson, P.B. 1969. Commelinales-Zingiberales. In: Metcalfe, C.R. (ed.) Anatomy of the monocotyledons, Vol. 3. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  36. Tomlinson, P.B., Smith, A.C. 1970. Joinvilleaceae, a new family of monocotyledons. Taxon 19: 887–889.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Bayer
  • O. Appel

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations