• H. T. Clifford
  • G. J. Keighery
  • J. G. Conran
Part of the The Families and Genera of Vascular Plants book series (FAMILIES GENERA, volume 4)


Low to tall perennials, shrubby or arborescent, with condensed to tall stem, the stem sometimes (Kingia) with a cover of aerial roots penetrating the persistent leaf bases; leaves spirally inserted, dorsiventral, more or less V- or U-shaped in transection. Inflorescences solitary or fasciculated globular heads on bracteate peduncles, or flowers solitary and subtended by scarious bracts; flowers hermaphrodite; perianth indurated, persistent; tepals variously free or united, the 2 whorls similar, cream white, reddish brown or purple to blue. Stamens 6; usually attached to base of tepals; anthers tetrasporangiate, basifixed or rarely dorsifixed, dehiscing introrsely or rarely extrorsely by slits or 2 pores. Ovary syncarpous, 3-locular, each locule with 1 ovule arising from axile placenta, or (Calectasia) 1-locular with 3 basally attached ovules; style single, with capitate or 3-lobed stigma; ovules anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellar; fruit indehiscent, enclosed in persistent perianth, or rarely capsular and explosively dehiscent (Baxteria); seeds subspherical with pale yellow testa, enclosed inside ovary and perianth parts; endosperm copious, without starch; embryo broad, resticted to the lower part of the seed.


Calcium Oxalate Crystal Aerial Root Perianth Segment Outer Tepal Flower Sessile 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Selected Bibliography

  1. Anway, J.C. 1969. The evolution and taxonomy of Calectasia cyanea R. Br. (Xanthorrhoeaceae) in terms of its present-day variation and cytogenetics. Aust. J. Bot. 17: 147–159.Google Scholar
  2. Chanda, S., Ghosh, K. 1976. Pollen morphology and its evolutionary significance in Xanthorrhoeaceae. In: Ferguson, I.K., Muller, J. (eds.) The evolutionary significance of the exine. London: Academic Press, pp. 527–559.Google Scholar
  3. Chase, M.W. et al. 1995. See general references.Google Scholar
  4. Cronquist, A. 1981. See general references.Google Scholar
  5. Dahlgren, R.M.T. et al. 1985. See general references.Google Scholar
  6. Fahn, A. 1954a. The anatomical structure of the Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 55: 158–184.Google Scholar
  7. Fahn, A. 1954b. Metaxylem elements in some families of the Monocotyledonae. New Phytol. 53: 530–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fahn, A. 1961. the anatomical structure of the Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort. and its taxonomic position. Recent Adv. Bot. 1: 155–160.Google Scholar
  9. Keighery, G.J. 1983. Ballistochory (explosive seed dispersal) in Baxteria R. Br. (Xanthorrhoeaceae). W. Aust. Nat. 15: 163166.Google Scholar
  10. Keighery, G.J. 1984. Chromosome numbers of Australian Liliaceae. Feddes Repert. 95: 523–532.Google Scholar
  11. Ramstad, E. 1953. Über das Vorkommen und die Verbreitung von Chelidonsäure in einigen Pflanzenfamilien. Pharm. Acta Helv. 28: 45–55.Google Scholar
  12. Rudall, P. 1994. The ovule and embryo sac in Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu lato. Flora 189: 335–351.Google Scholar
  13. Rudall, P., Caddick, L.R. 1994. Investigation of the presence of phenolic compounds in monocotyledonous cell walls using UV fluorescence microscopy. Ann. Bot. 74: 483–491.Google Scholar
  14. Rudall, P., Chase, M. 1996. Systematics of the Xanthorrhoeaceae sensu lato: evidence for polyphyly. Telopea 6: 185–203.Google Scholar
  15. Staff, I.A., Waterhouse, J.T. 1981. The biology of arborescent monocotyledons with special reference to Australian species. In: Pate, J.G., McComb, A.J. (eds.) The biology of Australian plants. Nedlands: University of W.A. Press, pp. 216–257.Google Scholar
  16. Takhtajan, A.L. 1982. See general references.Google Scholar
  17. Takhtajan, A.L. 1994. Novae semejstva odnodolan’ch. Bot. Zh. 79: 65–66.Google Scholar
  18. Wagner, W.M. 1977. Vessel types of monocotyledons: a survey. Bot. Not. 130: 383–402.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. T. Clifford
  • G. J. Keighery
  • J. G. Conran

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations