Regulation of RNA Polymerase III Transcription

  • Robert J. White
Part of the Biotechnology Intelligence Unit book series (BIOIU)

Abstract

There are two families of active 5S genes in Xenopus laevis. One consists of the somatic 5S genes, of which there are 400 copies per haploid genome, organized in a single cluster.1,2 The other is divided into two classes, the 20,000 major oocyte and the 1,30o trace oocyte 5S genes.3,4 There are only 6 nucleotides different between the 120 bp coding regions of the somatic and major oocyte types, but the flanking sequences are completely divergent.1,3,4

Keywords

Lymphoma Adenocarcinoma Adenoma Polypeptide Compaction 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Peterson RC, Doering JL, Brown DD. Characterization of two Xenopus somatic 5S DNA and one minor oocyte-specific DNA. Cell 1980; 20:131–141.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Harper ME, Price J, Korn LJ. Chromosomal mapping of Xenopus 5S genes: somatic-type versus oocyte-type. Nucleic Acids Res 1983; 11:2313–2333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fedoroff NV, Brown DD. The nucleotide sequence of oocyte 5S DNA in Xenopus laevis. I. The AT-rich spacer. Cell 1978; 13:701–716.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Miller JR, Cartwright EM, Brownlee GG et al. The nucleotide sequence of oocyte 5S DNA in Xenopus laevis. II. The GC-rich region. Cell 1978; 13:717–725.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown DD, Dawid IB. Specific gene amplification in oocytes. Science 1968; 160:272–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gall JG. Differential synthesis of the genes for ribosomal RNA during amphibian oogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1968; 60:553–560.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Wegnez M, Monier R, Denis H. Sequence heterogeneity of 5S RNA in Xenopus laevis. FEBS Lett 1972; 25:13–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ford PJ, Southern EM. Different sequences for 5S RNA in kidney cells and ovaries of Xenopus laevis. Nature New Biol 1973; 241:7–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brown DD, Carroll D, Brown RD. The isolation and characterization of a second oocyte 5S DNA from Xenopus laevis. Cell 1977; 12:1045–1056.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wakefield L, Gurdon JB. Cytoplasmic regulation of 5S RNA genes in nuclear-transplant embryos. EMBO J 1983; 2:1613–1619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Newport J, Kirschner M. A major developmental transition in early Xenopus embryos: II. Control of the onset of transcription. Cell 1982; 30:687–696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Prioleau M-N, Huet J, Sentenac A et al. Competition between chromatin and transcription complex assembly regulates gene expression during early development. Cell 1994; 77:439–449.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Almouzni G, Wolfe AP. Constraints on transcriptional activator function contribute to transcriptional quiescence during early Xenopus embryogenesis. EMBO J 1995; 14:1752–1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Woodland HR, Adamson EP. The synthesis and storage of histone during the oogenesis of Xenopus laevis. Dev Biol 1977; 57:118–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wormington WM, Brown DD. Onset of 5S RNA gene regulation during Xenopus embryogenesis. Dev Biol 1983; 99:248–257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Korn LJ, Gurdon JB. The reactivation of developmentally inert 5S genes in somatic nuclei injected into Xenopus oocytes. Nature 1981; 289:461–465.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Korn LJ. Transcription of Xenopus 5S ribosomal RNA genes. Nature 1982; 295:101–105.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Brown DD. The role of stable complexes that repress and activate eukaryotic genes. Cell 1984; 37:359–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Wolffe AP, Brown DD. Developmental regulation of two 5S ribosomal RNA genes. Science 1988; 241:1626–1632.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Millstein LS, Gottesfeld JM. Control of gene expression in eukaryotic cells: lessons from class III genes. Curr Opin Cell Biol 1989; 1: 497–502.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wormington WM, Bogenhagen DF, Jordan E et al. A quantitative assay for Xenopus 5S RNA gene transcription in vitro. Cell 1981; 24:809–817.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sakonju S, Brown DD. Contact points between a positive transcription factor and the Xenopus 5S RNA gene. Cell 1982; 31:395–405.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gottesfeld JM, Bloomer LS. Assembly of transcriptionally active 5S RNA gene chromatin in vitro. Cell 1982; 28:781–791.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brown DD, Schlissel MS. A positive transcription factor controls the differential expression of two 5S RNA genes. Cell 1985; 42:759–767.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Andrews MT, Brown DD. Transient activation of oocyte 5S RNA genes in Xenopus embryos by raising the level of the trans-acting factor TFIIIA. Cell 1987; 51:445–453.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    McConkey GA, Bogenhagen DF. TFIIIA binds with equal affinity to somatic and major oocyte 5S RNA genes. Genes Dev 1988; 2:205–214.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Blanco J, Millstein L, Razik MA et al. Two TFIIIA activities regulate expression of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene families. Genes Dev 1989; 3:1602–1612.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Xing YY, Worcel A. The C-terminal domain of transcription factor IIIA interacts differently with different 5S RNA genes. Mol Cell Biol 1989; 9:499–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shastry BS, Honda BM, Roeder RG. Altered levels of a 5S gene-specific transcription factor (TFIIIA) during oogenesis and embryonic development of Xenopus laevis. J Biol Chem 1984; 259: 11373–11382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Taylor W, Jackson IJ, Siegel N et al. The developmental expression of the gene for TFIIIA in Xenopus laevis. Nucleic Acids Res 1986; 14:6185–6195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Andrews MT, Loo S, Wilson LR. Coordinate inactivation of class III genes during the Gastrula-Neurula Transition in Xenopus. Dev Biol 1991; 146:250–254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lund E, Dahlberg JE. Control of 4–8S RNA transcription at the midblastula transition in Xenopus laevis embryos. Genes Dev 1992; 6:1097–1106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gilbert DM. Temporal order of replication of Xenopus laevis 5S ribosomal RNA genes in somatic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83:2924–2928.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Guinta DR, Korn LJ. Differential order of replication of Xenopus laevis 5S RNA genes. Mol Cell Biol 1986; 6:2536–2542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Guinta DR, Tso JY, Narayanswami S et al. Early replication and expression of oocyte-type 5S RNA genes in a Xenopus somatic cell line carrying a translocation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83:5150–5154.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wolffe AP, Brown DD. Differential 5S RNA gene expression in vitro. Cell 1987; 51:733–740.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Reynolds W. Effect of sequence differences between somatic and oocyte 5S RNA genes on transcriptional efficiency in an oocyte S15o extract. Mol Cell Biol 1988; 8:5056–5058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reynolds WF, Azer K. Sequence differences upstream of the promoters are involved in the differential expression of the Xenopus somatic and oocyte 5S RNA genes. Nucleic Acids Res 1988; 16:3391–3403.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Reynolds WF. Sequences preceding the minimal promoter of the Xenopus somatic 5S RNA gene increase binding efficiency for transcription factors. Nucleic Acids Res 1989; 17:9381–9394.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Keller HJ, Romaniuk PJ, Gottesfeld JM. Interaction of Xenopus TFIIIC with the TFIIIA.5S RNA gene complex. J Biol Chem 1992; 267:18190–18198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peck LJ, Millstein L, Eversole-Cire P et al. Transcriptionally inactive oocyte-type 5S RNA genes of Xenopus laevis are complexed with TFIIIA in vitro. Mol Cell Biol 1987; 7:3503–3510.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Wolffe AP. Transcription fraction TFIIIC can regulate differential Xenopus 5S RNA gene transcription in vitro. EMBO J 1988; 4:1071–1079.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Keller HJ, You QM, Romaniuk PJ et al. Additional intragenic promoter elements of the Xenopus 5S RNA genes upstream from the TFIIIA-binding site. Mol Cell Biol 1990; 10:5166–5176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Millstein L, Eversole-Cire P, Blanco J et al. Differential transcription of Xenopus oocyte and somatic-type 5S genes in a Xenopus oocyte extract. J Biol Chem 1987; 262:1–11.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Seidel CW, Peck LJ. Kinetic control of 5S RNA gene transcription. J Mol Biol 1992; 227:1009–1018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lassar AB, Martin PL, Roeder RG. Transcription of class III genes: formation of preinitiation complexes. Science 1983; 222:740–748.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Brown DD. Is there a Xenopus transcription factor that can substitute for TFIIIA? Re: Two TFIIIA activities regulate expression of the Xenopus 5S RNA gene families [letter]. Genes Dev 1991; 5:1737–1738.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bogenhagen DF, Wormington WM, Brown DD. Stable transcription complexes of Xenopus 5S RNA genes: a means to maintain the differentiated state. Cell 1982; 28:413–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Engelke DR, Gottesfeld JM. Chromosomal footprinting of transcriptionally active and inactive oocyte-type 5S RNA genes of Xenopus laevis. Nucleic Acids Res 1990; 18:6031–6037.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chipev CC, Wolffe AP. Chromosomal organization of Xenopus laevis oocyte and somatic 5S rRNA genes in vivo. Mol Cell Biol 1992; 12:45–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Schlissel MS, Brown DD. The transcriptional regulation of Xenopus 5S RNA genes in chromatin: the roles of active stable transcription complexes and histone H1. Cell 1984; 37:903–913.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Darby MK, Andrews TM, Brown DD. Transcription complexes that program Xenopus 5S RNA genes are stable in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85:5516–5520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gurdon JB, Dingwall C, Laskey RA et al. Developmental inactivity of 5S RNA genes persists when chromosomes are cut between genes. Nature 1982; 299:652–653.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Wolffe AP. Dominant and specific repression of Xenopus oocyte 5S RNA genes and satellite I DNA by histone H1. EMBO J 1989; 8:527–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wolffe AP. Developmental regulation of chromatin structure and function. Trends Cell Biol 1991; 1:61–66.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Dimitrov S, Almouzni G, Dasso M et al. Chromatin transitions during early Xenopus embryogenesis: Changes in histone H4 acetylation and in linker histone type. Dev Biol 1993; 160:214–227.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nightingale K, Dimitrov S, Reeves R et al. Evidence for a shared structural role for HMG1 and linker histones B4 and H1 in organizing chromatin. EMBO J 1996; 15:548–561.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ura K, Nightingale K, Wolffe AP. Differential association of HMG1 and linker histones B4 and H1 with dinucleosomal DNA: structural transitions and transcriptional repression. EMBO J 1996; 15:4959–4969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bouvet P, Dimitrov S, Wolffe AP. Specific regulation of Xenopus chromosomal 5S rRNA gene transcription in vivo by histone H1. Genes Dev 1994; 8:1147–1159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kandolf H. The HiA histone variant is an in vivo repressor of oocyte-type 5S gene transcription in Xenopus laevis embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91:7257–7261.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Andrews DL, Millstein L, Hamkalo BA et al. Competition between Xenopus satellite I sequences and pol III genes for stable transcription complex formation. Nucleic Acids Res 1984; 12:7753–7769.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Almouzni G, Mechali M, Wolffe AP. Competition between transcription complex assembly and chromatin assembly on replicating DNA. EMBO J 1990; 9:573–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Almouzni G, Mechali M, Wolffe AP. Transcription complex disruption caused by a transition in chromatin structure. Mol Cell Biol 1991; 11:655–665.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Renz M, Day LA. Transition from non-cooperative to cooperative and selective binding of histone Hi to DNA. Biochemistry 1976; 15:3220–3228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Jerzmanowski A, Cole RD. Flanking sequences of Xenopus 5S RNA genes determine differential inhibition by Hi histone in vitro. J Biol Chem 1990; 265:10726–10732.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Shimamura A, Sapp M, Rodriquez-Campos A et al. Histone Hi represses transcription from minichromosomes assembled in vitro. Mol Cell Biol 1989; 9:5573–5584.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Stutz F, Gouilloud E, Clarkson SG. Oocyte and somatic tyrosine tRNA genes in Xenopus laevis. Genes Dev 1989; 3:1190–1198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Reynolds WF, Johnson DL. Differential expression of oocyte-type class III genes with fraction TFIIIC from immature or mature oocytes. Mol Cell Biol 1992; 12:946–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Reynolds WF. The tyrosine phosphatase cdc25 selectively inhibits transcription of the Xenopus oocyte-type tRNAtyrC gene. Nucleic Acids Res 1993; 21: 4372–4377.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gouilloud E, Clarkson SG. A dispersed tyrosine tRNA gene from Xenopus laevis with high transcriptional activity in vitro. J Biol Chem 1986; 261:486–494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Kaplan G, Jelinek WR, Bachvarova R. Repetitive sequence transcripts and U1 RNA in mouse oocytes and eggs. Dev Biol 1985; 109:15–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Taylor KD, Piko L. Patterns of mRNA prevalence and expression of B1 and B2 transcripts in early mouse embryos. Development 1987; 101:877–892.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Bachvarova R. Small B2 RNAs in mouse oocytes, embryos, and somatic tissues. Dev Biol 1988; 130:513–523.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Rothstein JL, Johnson D, DeLoia JD et al. Gene expression during preimplantation mouse development. Genes Dev 1992; 6:1190–1201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Nothias J-Y, Miranda M, DePamphilis ML. Uncoupling of transcription and translation during zygotic gene activation in the mouse. EMBO J 1996; 15:5715–5725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kramerov DA, Tillib SV, Lekakh IV et al. Biosynthesis and cytoplasmic distribution of small poly(A)-containing B2 RNA. Biochim Biophys Acta 1985; 824:85–98.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Murphy D, Brickell PM, Latchman DS et al. Transcripts regulated during normal embryonic development and oncogenic transformation share a repetitive element. Cell 1983; 35: 865–871.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Vasseur M, Condamine H, Duprey P. RNAs containing B2 repeated sequences are transcribed in the early stages of mouse embryogenesis. EMBO J 1985; 4: 1749–1755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ryskov AP, Ivanov PL, Kramerov DA et al. Mouse ubiquitous B2 repeat in polysomal and cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNAs: unidirectional orientation and 32032-end localization. Nucl Acids Res 1983; 11:6541–6558.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ryskov AP, Ivanov PL, Tokarskaya ON et al. Major transcripts containing Bi and B2 repetitive sequences in cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNA from mouse tissues. FEBS Letters 1985; 182:73–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bernstine EG, Hooper ML, Grandchamp S et al. Alkaline phosphatase activity in mouse teratoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1973; 70:3899–3903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Hogan BLM, Taylor A, Adamson E. Cell interactions modulate embryonal carcinoma cell differentiation into parietal or visceral endoderm. Nature 1981; 291:235–237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Strickland S, Smith KK, Marotti KR. Hormonal induction of differentiation in teratocarcinoma stem cells: generation of parietal endoderm by retinoic acid and dibutyryl cAMP. Cell 1980; 21:347–355.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Bennett KL, Hill RE, Pietras DF et al. Most highly repeated dispersed DNA families in the mouse genome. Mol Cell Biol 1984; 4:1561–1571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vasseur M, Duprey P, Brulet P et al. One gene and one pseudogene for the cytokeratin endo A. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1985; 82:1155–1159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    White RJ, Stott D, Rigby PWJ. Regulation of RNA polymerase III transcription in response to F9 embryonal carcinoma stem cell differentiation. Cell 1989; 59:1081–1092.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bladon TS, Fregeau CJ, McBurney MW. Synthesis and processing of small B2 transcripts in mouse embryonal carcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol 1990; 10:4058–4067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gokal PK, Cavanaugh AH, Thompson EA. The effects of cycloheximide upon transcription of rRNA, 5S RNA, and tRNA genes. J Biol Chem 1986; 261:2536–2541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    White RJ, Stott D, Rigby PWJ. Regulation of RNA polymerase III transcription in response to Simian virus 4o transformation. EMBO J 1990; 9:3713–3721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Meißner W, Ahlers A, Seifart KH. The activity of transcription factor PBP, which binds to the proximal sequence element of mammalian U6 genes, is regulated during differentiation of F9 cells. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15:5888–5897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Alzuherri HM, White RJ. Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Matthews JL, Zwick MG, Paule MR. Coordinate regulation of ribosomal component synthesis in Acanthamoeba castellanii: 5S RNA transcription is down regulated during encystment by alteration of TFIIIA activity. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15:3327–3335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hatfield D, Varricchio F, Rice M et al. The aminoacyl-tRNA population of human reticulocytes. J Biol Chem 1982; 257:3183–3188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Sprague KU, Hagenbuchle O, Zuniga MC. The nucleotide sequence of two silk gland alanine tRNAs: implications for fibroin synthesis and for initiator tRNA structure. Cell 1977; 11:561–570.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Underwood DC, Knickerbocker H, Gardner G et al. Silkgland-specific tRNAAla genes are tightly clustered in the silkworm genome. Mol Cell Biol 1988; 8:5504–5512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Young LS, Takahashi N, Sprague KU. Upstream sequences confer distinctive transcriptional properties on genes encoding silkgland-specific tRNAAla. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83:374–378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Sullivan HS, Young LS, White CN et al. Silk gland-specific tRNAAla genes interact more weakly than constitutive tRNAAla genes with silkworm TFIIIB and polymerase III fractions. Mol Cell Biol 1994; 14:1806–1814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Young LS, Ahnert N, Sprague KU. Silkworm TFIIIB binds both constitutive and silk gland-specific tRNAAla promoters but protects only the constitutive promoter from DNase I cleavage. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16:1256–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Clarke EM, Peterson CL, Brainard AV et al. Regulation of the RNA polymerase I and III transcription systems in response to growth conditions. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:22189–22195.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sethy I, Moir RD, Librizzi M et al. In vitro evidence for growth regulation of tRNA gene transcription in yeast. J Biol Chem 1995; 270:28463–28470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lopez-de-Leon A, Librizzi M, Tuglia K et al. PCF4 encodes an RNA polymerase III transcription factor with homology to TFIIB. Cell 1992; 71:211–220.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Huibregtse JM, Engelke DR. Genomic footprinting of a yeast tRNA gene reveals stable complexes over the 5′-flanking region. Mol Cell Biol 1989; 9:3244–3252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Carey MF, Singh K. Enhanced B2 transcription in simian virus 40-transformed cells is mediated through the formation of RNA polymerase III transcription complexes on previously inactive genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1988; 85:7059–7063.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Tower J, Sollner-Webb B. Polymerase III transcription factor B activity is reduced in extracts of growth-restricted cells. Mol Cell Biol 1988; 8:1001–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Johnson LF, Abelson HT, Green H et al. Changes in RNA in relation to growth of the fibroblast. I. Amounts of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA in resting and growing cells. Cell 1974; 1: 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Mauck JC, Green H. Regulation of pre-transfer RNA synthesis during transition from resting to growing state. Cell 1974; 3:171–177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Ortwerth BJ, Liu LP. Correlation between a specific isoaccepting lysyl transfer ribonucleic acid and cell division in mammalian tissues. Biochemistry 1973; 12:3978–3984.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Johnson LF, Levis R, Abelson HT et al. Changes in RNA in relation to growth of the fibroblast. IV. Alterations in the production and processing of mRNA and rRNA in resting and growing cells. J Cell Biol 1976; 71:933–938.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Abelson HT, Johnson LF, Penman S et al. Changes in RNA in relation to growth of the fibroblast: II. The lifetime of mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA in resting and growing cells. Cell 1974; 1:161–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schlegel RA, Iversen P, Rechsteiner M. The turnover of tRNAs microinjected into animal cells. Nucleic Acids Res 1978; 5:3715–3729.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Edwards DR, Parfett CLJ, Denhardt DT. Transcriptional regulation of two seruminduced RNAs in mouse fibroblasts: equivalence of one species to B2 repetitive elements. Mol Cell Biol 1985; 5:3280–3288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Lania L, Pannuti A, La Mantia G et al. The transcription of B2 repeated sequences is regulated during the transition from quiescent to proliferative state in cultured rodent cells. FEBS Lett 1987; 219:400–404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Hoeffler WK, Kovelman R, Roeder RG. Activation of transcription factor IIIC by the adenovirus E1A protein. Cell 1988; 53:907–920.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Sinn E, Wang Z, Kovelman R et al. Cloning and characterization of a TFIIIC2 subunit (TFIIICß) whose presence correlates with activation of RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription by adenovirus E1A expression and serum factors. Genes Dev 1995; 9:675–685.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Garber M, Panchanathan S, Fan RS et al. The phorbol ester, 12–0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, induces specific transcription by RNA polymerase III in Drosophila Schneider cells. J Biol Chem 1991; 266:20598–20601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Garber M, Vilalta A, Johnson DL. Induction of Drosophila RNA polymerase III gene expression by the phorbol ester 12–0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is mediated by transcription factor IIIB. Mol Cell Biol 1994; 14:339–347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Trivedi A, Vilalta A, Gopalan S et al. TATA-binding protein is limiting for both TATA-containing and TATA-lacking RNA polymerase III promoters in Drosophila cells. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16:6909–6916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Prescott DM, Bender MA. Synthesis of RNA and protein during mitosis in mammalian tissue culture cells. Exp Cell Res 1962; 26:260–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Terasima T, Tolmach LJ. Growth and nucleic acid synthesis in synchronously dividing populations of HeLa cells. Exp Cell Res 1963; 30:344–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Davidson D. RNA synthesis in roots of Vicia faba. Exp Cell Res 1964; 35:317–325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Fink K, Turnock G. Synthesis of transfer RNA during the synchronous nuclear division cycle in Physarum polycephalum. Eur J Biochem 1977; 80:93–96.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gottesfeld JM, Forbes DJ. Mitotic repression of the transcriptional machinery. Trends Biochem Sci 1997; 22:197–202.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Hartl P, Gottesfeld J, Forbes DJ. Mitotic repression of transcription in vitro. J Cell Biol 1993; 120:613–624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wolf VJ, Dang T, Hartl P et al. Role of maturation-promoting factor (p34cdc2cyclin B) in differential expression of the Xenopus oocyte and somatic-type 5S RNA genes. Mol Cell Biol 1994; 14:4704–4711.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Gottesfeld JM, Wolf VJ, Dang T et al. Mitotic repression of RNA polymerase III transcription in vitro mediated by phosphorylation of a TFIIIB component. Science 1994; 263:81–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Leresche A, Wolf VJ, Gottesfeld JM. Repression of RNA polymerase II and III transcription during M phase of the cell cycle. Exp Cell Res 1996; 229:282–288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    White RJ, Gottlieb TM, Downes CS et al. Mitotic regulation of a TATA-bindingprotein-containing complex. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15:1983–1992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    McLees A, White RJ. Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    White RJ, Gottlieb TM, Downes CS et al. Cell cycle regulation of RNA polymerase III transcription. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15: 6653–6662.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Larminie CGC, Cairns CA, Mital R et al. Mechanistic analysis of RNA polymerase III regulation by the retinoblastoma protein. EMBO J 1997; 16:2061–2071.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Sherr CJ. G1 phase progression: cycling on cue. Cell 1994; 79:551–555.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Weinberg RA. The retinoblastoma protein and cell cycle control. Cell 1995; 81:323–330.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Panning B, Smiley JR. Activation of RNA polymerase III transcription of human Alu repetitive elements by adenovirus type 5: requirement for the E1b 58-kilodalton protein and the products of E4 open reading frames 3 and 6. Mol Cell Biol 1993; 13:3231–3244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Liu W-M, Chu W-M, Choudary PV et al. Cell stress and translational inhibitors transiently increase the abundance of mammalian SINE transcripts. Nucleic Acids Res 1995; 23:1758–1765.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Dieci G, Duimio L, Peracchia G et al. Selective inactivation of two components of the multiprotein transcription factor TFIIIB in cycloheximide growth-arrested yeast cells. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 13476–13482.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bohr VA, Smith CA, Okumoto DS et al. DNA repair in an active gene: removal of pyrimidine dimers from the DHFR gene of CHO cells is much more efficient than in the genome overall. Cell 1985; 40:359–369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Vos J-M, Wauthier EL. Differential introduction of DNA damage and repair in mammalian genes transcribed by RNA polymerase I and II. Mol Cell Biol 1991; 11:2245–2252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Dammann R, Pfeifer GP. Lack of gene- and strand-specific DNA repair in RNA polymerase III-transcribed human tRNA genes. Mol Cell Biol 1997; 17:219–229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Fornace AJ, Mitchell JB. Induction of B2 RNA polymerase III transcription by heat shock: enrichment for heat shock induced sequences in rodent cells by hybridization subtraction. Nucleic Acids Res 1986; 14:5793–5811.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Fornace AJ, Alamo I, Hollander MC et al. Induction of heat shock protein transcripts and B2 transcripts by various stresses in Chinese hamster cells. Exp Cell Res 1989; 182:61–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Fradkin LG, Yoshinaga SK, Berk AJ et al. Inhibition of host cell RNA polymerase III-mediated transcription by poliovirus: inactivation of specific transcription factors. Mol Cell Biol 1987; 7:3880–3887.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Clark ME, Dasgupta A. A transcriptionally active form of TFIIIC is modified in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells. Mol Cell Biol 1990; 10:5106–5113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Shen Y, Igo M, Yalamanchili P et al. DNA binding domain and subunit interactions of transcription factor IIIC revealed by dissection with poliovirus 3C protease. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16:4163–4171.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Kovelman R, Roeder RG. Purification and characterization of two forms of human transcription factor IIIC. J Biol Chem 1992; 267:24446–24456.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Clark ME, Hammerle T, Wimmer E et al. Poliovirus proteinase 3C converts an active form of transcription factor IIIC to an inactive form: a mechanism for inhibition of host cell polymerase III transcription by poliovirus. EMBO J 1991; 10:2941–2947.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Clark ME, Lieberman PM, Berk AJ et al. Direct cleavage of human TATA-binding protein by poliovirus protease 3C in vivo and in vitro. Mol Cell Biol 1993; 13:1232–1237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    White RJ, Jackson SP. Mechanism of TATA-binding protein recruitment to a TATA-less class III promoter. Cell 1992; 71:1041–1053.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Soderlund H, Pettersson U, Vennstom B et al. A new species of virus-coded low molecular weight RNA from cells infected with Adenovirus type 2. Cell 1976; 7:585–593.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Berger SL, Folk WR. Differential activation of RNA polymerase III-transcribed genes by the polyomavirus enhancer and the adenovirus E1A gene products. Nucleic Acids Res 1985; 13:1413–1428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Gaynor RB, Feldman LT, Berk AJ. Transcription of class III genes activated by viral immediate early proteins. Science 1985; 230:447–450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Hoeffler WK, Roeder RG. Enhancement of RNA polymerase III transcription by the E1A gene product of adenovirus. Cell 1985; 41:955–963.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Yoshinaga S, Dean N, Han M et al. Adenovirus stimulation of transcription by RNA polymerase III: evidence for an E1A-dependent increase in transcription factor IIIC concentration. EMBO J 1986; 5:343–354.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Sollerbrant K, Akusjarvi G, Svensson C. Repression of RNA polymerase III transcription by adenovirus E1A. J Virol 1993; 67:4195–4204.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Russanova VR, Driscoll CT, Howard BH. Adenovirus type 2 preferentially stimulates polymerase III transcription of Alu elements by relieving repression: a potential role for chromatin. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15:4282–4290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ahlers SE, Feldman LT. Effects of a temperature-sensitive mutation in the immediate-early gene of pseudorabies virus on class II and class III gene transcription. J Virol 1987; 61:1103–1107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Aufiero B, Schneider RJ. The hepatitis B virus X-gene product trans-activates both RNA polymerase II and III promoters. EMBO J 1990; 9:497–504.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Loeken M, Bikel I, Livingston DM et al. Trans-activation of RNA polymerase II and III promoters by SV4o small t antigen. Cell 1988; 55:1171–1177.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Panning B, Smiley JR. Activation of RNA polymerase III transcription of human Alu elements by herpes simplex virus. Virology 1994; 202:408–417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Patel G, Jones NC. Activation in vitro of RNA polymerase II and III directed transcription by baculovirus produced E1A protein. Nucleic Acids Res 1990; 18:2909–2915.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Datta S, Soong CJ, Wang DM et al. A purified adenovirus 289-amino-acid E1A protein activates RNA polymerase III transcription in vitro and alters transcription factor TFIIIC. J Virol 1991; 65:5297–5304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kovelman R, Roeder RG. Sarkosyl defines three intermediate steps in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III: application to stimulation of transcription by E1A. Genes Dev 1990; 4:646–658.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    White RJ, Trouche D, Martin K et al. Repression of RNA polymerase III transcription by the retinoblastoma protein. Nature 1996; 382:88–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Kraus VB, Inostroza JA, Yeung K et al. Interaction of the Dri inhibitory factor with the TATA binding protein is disrupted by adenovirus E1A. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1994; 91:6279–6282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    White RJ, Khoo BC-E, Inostroza JA et al. The TBP-binding repressor Dri differentially regulates RNA polymerases I, II and III. Science 1994; 266:448–450.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Chu W-M, Wang Z, Roeder RG et al. RNA polymerase III transcription repressed by Rb through its interactions with TFIIIB and TFIIIC2. J Biol Chem 1997; 272:14755–14761.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Jang KL, Latchmann DS. HSV infection induces increased transcription of Alu repeated sequences by RNA polymerase III. FEBS Lett 1989; 258:255–258.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Jang KL, Latchman DS. The herpes simplex virus immediate-early protein ICP27 stimulates the transcription of cellular Alu repeated sequences by increasing the activity of transcription factor TFIIIC. Biochem J 1992; 284:667–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kim C-M, Koike K, Saito I et al. HBx gene of hepatitis B virus induces liver cancer in transgenic mice. Nature 1991; 351:317–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Kwee L, Lucito R, Aufiero B et al. Alternate translation initiation on hepatitis B virus X mRNA produces multiple polypeptides that differentially transactivate class II and III promoters. J Virol 1992; 66:4382–4389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Wang H-D, Yuh C-H, Dang CV et al. The hepatitis B virus X protein increases the cellular level of TATA-binding protein, which mediates transactivation of RNA polymerase III genes. Mol Cell Biol 1995; 15:6720–6728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Cheong J, Yi M, Lin Y et al. Human RPB5, a subunit shared by eukaryotic nuclear RNA polymerases, binds human hepatitis B virus X protein and may play a role in X transactivation. EMBO J 1995; 14:143–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Kekule AS, Lauer U, Weiss L et al. Hepatitis B virus transactivator HBx uses a tumor promoter signalling pathway. Nature 1993; 361:742–745.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Qadri I, Maguire HF, Siddiqui A. Hepatitis B virus transactivator protein X interacts with the TATA-binding protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1995; 92:1003–1007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    James CBL, Carter TH. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits adenovirus VA gene transcription in vitro. J Gen Virol 1992; 73:3133–3139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Piras G, Dittmer J, Radonovich MF et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type I Tax protein transactivates RNA polymerase III promoter in vitro and in vivo. J Biol Chem 1996; 271:20501–20506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Gottesfeld JM, Johnson DL, Nyborg JK. Transcriptional activation of RNA polymerase III-dependent genes by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax protein. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16:1777–1785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Scott MRD, Westphal K-H, Rigby PWJ. Activation of mouse genes in transformed cells. Cell 1983; 34:557–567.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Kramerov DA, Lekakh IV, Samarina OP et al. The sequences homologous to major interspersed repeats B1 and B2 of mouse genome are present in mRNA and cytoplasmic poly(A)+ RNA. Nucleic Acids Res 1982; 10:7477–7491.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Brickell PM, Latchman DS, Murphy D et al. Activation of a Qa/Tla class I major histocompatibility antigen gene is a general feature of oncogenesis in the mouse. Nature 1983; 306:756–760.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Majello B, La Mantia G, Simeone A et al. Activation of major histocompatibility complex class I mRNA containing an Alu-like repeat in polyoma virus-transformed rat cells. Nature 1985; 314:457–459.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Singh K, Carey M, Saragosti S et al. Expression of enhanced levels of small RNA polymerase III transcripts encoded by the B2 repeats in simian virus 40-transformed mouse cells. Nature 1985; 314:553–556.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Carey MF, Singh K, Botchan M et al. Induction of specific transcription by RNA polymerase III in transformed cells. Mol Cell Biol 1986; 6:3068–3076.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Kramerov DA, Tillib SV, Shumyatsky GP et al. The most abundant nascent poly(A)+ RNAs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III in murine tumor cells. Nucleic Acids Res 1990; 18:4499–4506.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Chen W, Heierhorst J, Brosius J et al. Expression of neural BC1 RNA: induction in murine tumors. Eur J Cancer 1997; 33:288–292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    DeChiara TM, Brosius J. Neural BC1 RNA: cDNA clones reveal nonrepetitive sequence content. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1987; 84:2624–2628.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Larminie CGC, White RJ. Unpublished observations.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Dean N, Berk AJ. Separation of TFIIIC into two functional components by sequence specific DNA affinity chromatography. Nucleic Acids Res 1987; 15:9895–9907.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Lee WS, Kao CC, Bryant GO et al. Adenovirus E1A activation domain binds the basic repeat in the TATA box transcription factor. Cell 1991; 67:365–376.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Gruda MC, Zabolotny JM, Xiao JH et al. Transcriptional activation by simian virus 40 large T antigen: interactions with multiple components of the transcription complex. Mol Cell Biol 1993; 13:961–969.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Chesnokov I, Chu W-M, Botchan MR et al. p53 inhibits RNA polymerase III-directed transcription in a promoter-dependent manner. Mol Cell Biol 1996; 16:7084–7088.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Whyte P. The retinoblastoma protein and its relatives. Seminars in Cancer Biology 1995; 6:83–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Horowitz JM, Park S-H, Bogenmann E et al. Frequent inactivation of the retinoblastoma anti-oncogene is restricted to a subset of human tumor cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87:2775–2779.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Kaye FJ, Kratzke RA, Gerster JL et al. A single amino acid substitution results in a retinoblastoma protein defective in phosphorylation and oncoprotein binding. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1990; 87:6922–6926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Scheffner M, Munger K, Byrne JC et al. The state of the p53 and retinoblastoma genes in human cervical carcinoma cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1991; 88:5523–5527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Vousden KH. Regulation of the cell cycle by viral oncoproteins. Seminars in Cancer Biology 1995; 6:109–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Whyte P, Buchkovich KJ, Horowitz JM et al. Association between an oncogene and an anti-oncogene: the adenovirus EiA proteins bind to the retinoblastoma gene product. Nature 1988; 334:124–129.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Whyte P, Williamson NM, Harlow E. Cellular targets for transformation by the adenovirus EiA proteins. Cell 1989; 5: 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    DeCaprio JA, Ludlow JW, Figge J et al. SV40 large tumor antigen forms a specific complex with the product of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene. Cell 1988; 54: 275–283.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Moran E. A region of SV4o large T antigen can substitute for a transforming domain of the adenovirus EiA products. Nature 1988; 334:168–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ewen ME, Ludlow JW, Marsilio E et al. An N-terminal transformation-governing sequence of SV4o large T antigen contributes to the binding of both p110Rb and a second ceellular protein, p120. Cell 1989; 58:257–267.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Ludlow JW, DeCaprio JA, Huang C-M et al. SV4o large T antigen binds preferentially to an underphosphorylated member of the retinoblastoma susceptibility gene product family. Cell 1989; 56:57–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Hu Q, Dyson N, Harlow E. The regions of the retinoblastoma protein needed for binding to adenovirus EiA or SV4o large T antigen are common sites for mutations. EMBO J 1990; 9:1147–1155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Hunter T, Pines J. Cyclins and cancer II: cyclin D and CDK inhibitors come of age. Cell 1994; 79:573–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Pines J. Cyclins, CDKs and cancer. Seminars in Cancer Biology 1995; 6: 63–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Bates S, Peters G. Cyclin Di as a cellular protooncogene. Seminars in Cancer Biology 1995; 6:73–82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Hirama T, Koeffler HP. Role of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in the development of cancer. Blood 1995; 86:841–854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Otterson GA, Kratzke RA, Coxon A et al. Absence of p16Ink4 protein is restricted to the subset of lung cancer lines that retains wildtype RB. Oncogene 1994; 9:3375–3378.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Hollstein M, Sidransky D, Vogelstein B et al. p53 mutations in human cancers. Science 1991; 253:49–53.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Haffner R, Oren M. Biochemical properties and biological effects of p53. Curr Opin Genetics Dev 1995; 5: 84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert J. White
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Biomedical and Life Sciences Division of Biochemistry and Molecular BiologyUniversity of GlasgowGlasgowScotland, UK

Personalised recommendations