The Immunological Basis for the Development of Tumor Cell- and Peptide-Based Vaccines for Treatment of Patients with Renal Cell Carcinoma
The failure of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to respond to irradiation, chemotherapy or hormone therapy has left immunotherapy as the most hopeful form of treatment to date. Systemic cytokine therapy of RCC using recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) alone or in combination with recombinant interferon-α (rIFN-α) has led to objective response rates of 20%–30% (Belldegrun et al. 1991; Rosenberg 1992). Nevertheless, few complete and long-lasting remissions have been achieved and severe toxic side effects limit their broad application. These obstacles have spurred efforts to develop alternative strategies to modulate immune responses of RCC patients. In particular, new approaches are sought for treatment of patients with minimal residual disease. In the forefront are attempts to develop genetically engineered tumor cell vaccines and peptide vaccines that will induce tumor-specific immune responses in vivo.
KeywordsRenal Cell Carcinoma Major Histocompatibility Complex Minimal Residual Disease Renal Cell Carcinoma Patient Peptide Vaccine
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