Measuring Spatial Variations in Relationships with Geographically Weighted Regression

  • A. Stewart Fotheringham
  • Martin Charlton
  • Chris Brunsdon
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


A frequent aim of data analysis is to identify relationships between pairs of variables, often after negating the effects of other variables. By far the most common type of analysis used to achieve this aim is that of regression in which relationships between one or more independent variables and a single dependent variable are estimated. In spatial analysis, the data are drawn from geographical units and a single regression equation is estimated. This has the effect of producing ‘average’ or ‘global’ parameter estimates which are assumed to apply equally over the whole region. That is, the relationships being measured are assumed to be stationary over space. Relationships which are not stationary, and which are said to exhibit spatial nonstationarity, create problems for the interpretation of parameter estimates from a regression model. It is the intention of this paper to describe a statistical technique, which we refer to as Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR), which can be used both to account for and to examine the presence of spatial non-stationarity in relationships.


Parameter Estimate Spatial Variation Geographically Weight Regression Random Coefficient Model Significant Spatial Variation 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Stewart Fotheringham
    • 1
  • Martin Charlton
    • 1
  • Chris Brunsdon
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of NewcastleNewcastle-upon-TyneUK
  2. 2.Department of Town and Country PlanningUniversity of NewcastleNewcastle-upon-TyneUK

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