Geoid Height Optimisation via Sequential Least Squares Method

  • Zarina Ahmad-Berger
  • A. H. W. Kearsley
Conference paper
Part of the International Association of Geodesy Symposia book series (IAG SYMPOSIA, volume 117)


The methodology for the integration of heterogeneous height differences (from GPS vectors, precise gravimetric geoid and levelling) in one common adjustment via a sequential process of Bayesian Least Squares and constraint equations (BAYCON) was proposed in 1993, at the IAG meeting in Beijing. This paper discusses the adjustment results of the southern Peninsular Malaysia. This methodology has also been used in the assimilation of heterogeneous heights into a national levelling network of Wilayah Persekutuan (Ahmad and Kearsley, 1995), and in the evaluation process of the Australian Height Datum, mainly to determine if it meets the specifications of Third Order Levelling (Kearsley, Ahmad and Chan, 1993).


Terrestrial Gravity Ellipsoidal Height Height Element Australian Height Data Stochastic Correlation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ahmad Z., Kearsley, A.H.W. and Harvey, B. R., 1993, “Optimising GPS, geoid and tide gauge heights in vertical control networks”, UNISURV S-43, School of Surveying, UNSW, pp. 127–209.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, Zarina and Kearsley, A.H.W., 1996a, “National Geoid for the southern Peninsula Malaysia”, MHD Technical Report No 4, School of Geomatic Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, 2052, March, 1996,.53 pp.Google Scholar
  3. Ahmad-Berger, Zarina, 1997, Zarina, 1997, “The Optimisation of Vertical Control Networks”, Masters Thesis, School of Geomatic Engineering, UNSW, Sydney, 2052, February, 1997, 86 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Caspary, W.F., 1987, Concepts of Network and Deformation Analysis, Monograph 11, School of Surveying, UNSW, Kensington, 183 pp.Google Scholar
  5. Cross, P.A., 1983, Advanced Least Squares Applied to Position Fixing, Working Papers, North East London Polytechnic, Dept. of Land Surveying.Google Scholar
  6. Harvey, B.R., 1994, “Practical Least Squares and Statistics for Surveyors ”, 2nd Edition, Monograph 13, School of Surveying, UNSW, Kensington.Google Scholar
  7. Kearsley, A. H. W., Ahmad, Z. and Chan, A., 1993, “National Height Datums, Levelling, GPS Heights and Geoids”, Aust. J. Geod. Photogram. Surv, No 59, pp. 53–88.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zarina Ahmad-Berger
    • 1
  • A. H. W. Kearsley
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Geomatic EngineeringUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations