Advertisement

Developments at Schott: Selected Topics

  • Alfred Thelen
  • Ulrich Jeschkowski
  • Dieter Krause
  • Klaus Bange
  • Friedrich G. K. Baucke
  • Frank-Thomas Lentes
Part of the Schott Series on Glass and Glass Ceramics book series (SCHOTT)

Abstract

Dr. phil. habil. Walter Heinrich Geffcken was the first senior researcher to get involved in full time optical coating research at the Jenaer Glaswerk Schott & Gen. Due to circumstances beyond his control he was forced to work in secrecy and without scientific peer exchange. Several of his results were rediscovered many years later. When asked in 1992 to contribute to this book an article on his early work in optical coatings, he gladly accepted. He wrote several letters presenting his views and suggesting topics. He asked for copies of his meticulous internal reports which had survived the dramatic transfer from Jena to the new location in Mainz. But fate did not allow him to finish this task. Walter H. Geffcken died, 91 years old, on April 4, 1995. Now it is up to us to finish the task.

Keywords

Extinction Spectrum Stop Band Antireflection Coating Electron Bombardment Electrochromic Device 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 5.1
    Z. Knittl: Optics of Thin Films (An Optical Multilayer Theory) ( Wiley, London 1976 )Google Scholar
  2. 5.2
    E. Berger: “über die Fleckenbildungsgeschwindigkeit säurelöslicher Glaser und ihre Abhängigkeit von der thermischen Vorgeschichte”, Glastechn. Ber. 12, 189–198 (1934)Google Scholar
  3. 5.3
    H.D. Taylor: “A method of increasing the brilliancy of the images formed by lenses”, British Patent 29561, filed Dec. 31, 1904Google Scholar
  4. 5.4
    Carl Zeiss Company: “Verfahren zur Erhöhung der Lichtdurchlässigkeit optischer Teile durch Erniedrigung des Brechungsexponenten an den Grenzflächen optischer Teile”, German Patent 685 767, filed Nov. 1, 1935Google Scholar
  5. 5.5
    W. Geffcken: “Vorgeschichte unserer Versuche über Reflexverminderung durch mehrfache Schichten als Begründung unseres Vorbenützungsanspruchs”, Laborbericht 157, Schott Glaswerke (Mainz, Aug. 16, 1939 )Google Scholar
  6. 5.6
    K. Blodgett: “Use of interference to extinguish reflection of light from glass”, Phys. Rev. 55, 391–404 (1939)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 5.7
    C.H. Cartwright, A.F. Turner: “Reducing the reflection from glass by multi-layer films”, Bulletin of the American Physical Society 14, 8 (1939)Google Scholar
  8. 5.8
    W. Geffcken: “Die Berechnung des Aufbaus von geschichteten, optischen Systemen mit vorgeschrieben verlaufender Wellenlängenabhängigkeit der Reflexion durch harmonische Analyse”, Laborbericht 161, Schott Glaswerke (Mainz, Feb. 9, 1940 )Google Scholar
  9. 5.9
    E.A. Guillemin: Synthesis of Passive Networks ( Wiley, New York 1957 )Google Scholar
  10. 5.10
    P.I. Richards: “A special class of functions with positive real part in a half plane”, Duke Math. J. 14, 777–786 (1947)Google Scholar
  11. 5.11
    H.J. Riblet: “General synthesis of quarter-wave impedance transformers”, IRE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques 5, 36–43 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 5.12
    W. Geffcken: “Der Aufbau von Oberflächenschichten, welche zu einer besonders starken Verminderung der Reflexion in einem großen Wellenlängenbereich und bei merklich schrägem Auffallswinkel führen”, Laborbericht 164, Schott Glaswerke (Mainz, March 11, 1940 )Google Scholar
  13. 5.13
    W. Geffcken: “Überzug aus mindestens drei Schichten von verschiedener Brechungszahl für einen nichtmetallischen Gegenstand zur Verminderung von dessen Oberflächenreflexion”, German Patent 758 767, filed July 19, 1940Google Scholar
  14. 5.14
    S. Itoh, K. Nishida, O. Kamiya, N. Sekumara: “Antireflexbelag”, German Patent DT 2154030, priority Oct. 29, 1970 (Cannon)Google Scholar
  15. 5.15
    A. Thelen: “Reflexionsvermindernde, aus mehreren Teilschichten aufgebaute Mehrfachschicht auf einer Unterlage”, Swiss Patent 563,945, filed Oct. 20, 1971Google Scholar
  16. 5.16
    A. Thelen: Design of Optical Interference Coatings ( McGraw-Hill, New York 1989 ) p. 91Google Scholar
  17. 5.17
    W. Geffcken: “Schicht zur Änderung des Reflexionsvermögens aus einer Mehrzahl abwechselnd übereinanderliegender Teilschichten aus zwei Stoffen von verschiedener Brechzahl”, German Patent 742 463, filed July 15, 1942Google Scholar
  18. 5.18
    F.C. Rock: “Antireflection coating and assembly having synthesized layer of index of refraction”, US Patent 3,432,225, filed May 4, 1964 (OCLI)Google Scholar
  19. 5.19
    H.A. Tanner, L.B. Lockhart, Jr.: “German reflection reducing coatings for glass”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 36, 701–706 (1946)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 5.20
    W. Geffcken: “Dünne Schichten auf Glas”, Zeitschrift für Glaskunde 24, 143–151 (1951)Google Scholar
  21. 5.21
    Lord Rayleigh: “On the reflection of light from a regularly stratified medium”, Proc. Roy. Soc. (London) A 93, 565–577 (1917)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 5.22
    W. Geffcken: “Die Reflexion und Durchlässigkeit von Interferenzfiltern aus Schichten verschiedener Brechung”, Laborbericht 183, Part I—III, Schott Glaswerke (Mainz, June 18, 1943 )Google Scholar
  23. 5.23
    A.F. Turner: “Some current developments in multilayer optical films”, J. de Phys. et le Radium 11, 444–460 (1950)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 5.24
    L.I. Epstein: “The design of optical filters”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 806–810 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 5.25
    W. Geffcken: “Die Reflexion und Durchlässigkeit von Interferenzfiltern aus Schichten verschiedener Brechung”, Laborbericht 183, Part IV—V, Schott Glaswerke (Mainz, June 18, 1943 )Google Scholar
  26. 5.26
    W. Geffcken: “Filter mit verminderter Bandstruktur”, Laborbericht E 9, Schott Glaswerke (Mainz, July 12, 1948 )Google Scholar
  27. 5.27
    W. Geffcken: “Interferenzfilter mit verminderter Bandstruktur”, German Patent 902 191, filed Oct. 29, 1949Google Scholar
  28. 5.28
    W. Geffcken: “Interferenzlichtfilter”, German Patent 716 153, filed Dec. 8, 1939Google Scholar
  29. 5.29
    W. Geffcken: “Interferenzlichtfilter”, German Patent 913 005, filed Nov. 15, 1944Google Scholar
  30. 5.30
    W. Geffcken: “Polarisator”, German Patent 899 120, filed Feb. 5, 1944Google Scholar
  31. 5.31
    W. Geffcken: private communication, Feb. 23, 1992, translated by the author 5.32 W. Geffcken: unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  32. 5.32
    W. Geffcken: unpublished resultsGoogle Scholar
  33. 5.33
    H.K. Pulker, W. Haag, M. Bühler, E. Moll: “Properties of ion plated oxide films”, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 3 (6), 2700–2701 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 5.34
    H. Ehrich: “Verfahren und Vorrichtung zur Materialverdampfung in einem Vakuumbehälter”, German Patent 3 413–891 (1987)Google Scholar
  35. 5.35
    S. Meassick, C. Chan, R. Allen: “Thin film deposition techniques utilizing the anodic arc”, Surface and Coatings Technol. 54 /55, 324–348 (1992)Google Scholar
  36. 5.36
    H.A. Macleod, P. Pelletier: “Error compensation mechanisms in some thinfilm monitoring systems”, Opt. Acta 24, 907–934 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 5.37
    W. Geffcken: “Interferenzlichtfilter”, German Patent 716153 (1939)Google Scholar
  38. 5.38
    P.H. Berning, A.F. Turner: “Induced transmission in absorbing films applied to band pass filter design”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 47, 230–239 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 5.39
    P.W. Baumeister: “Radiant power flow and absorptance in thin films”, Appl. Opt. 8, 423–436 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 5.40
    L.I. Epstein: “The design of optical filters”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 42, 806–810 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 5.41
    K. Gürtler, U. Jeschkowski, E. Conrath: (1988) “Experiences with the reactive low voltage ion plating in optical thin film production”, Proc. SPIE 1019, 184–188 5.42 B.G. Boyard: “Ion assisted processing of optical coatings”, Thin Solid Films 206, 224–229 (1991)Google Scholar
  42. 5.42
    B.G. Boyard: “Ion assisted processing of optical coatings”, Thin Solid Films 206, 224–229 (1991)Google Scholar
  43. 5.43
    H.K. Pulker, M. Reinhold: “Reactive ion plating of optical films”, Glastechn. Ber. 62, 100–105 (1989)Google Scholar
  44. 5.44
    V.J. Gibson: “Ion beam processing of optical thin films”, Phys. Thin Films 13, 109–150 (1987)Google Scholar
  45. 5.45
    Th. Hünlich, H. Bauch, R.Th. Kersten, V. Paquet, G.F. Weidmann: “Fiber-preform fabrication using plasma technology: a review”, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 122–129 (1987)Google Scholar
  46. 5.46
    D. Krause, V. Paquet, W. Siefert: “A novel plasma-impulse-CVD process for the preparation of fiber preforms”, Conf. Proc. 5th IOOC and 11th ECOC ( Instituto internazionale delle Communicazioni, Venice 1985 ) pp. 7–10Google Scholar
  47. 5.47
    W. Siefert, J. Mentges, H. Bauch: “Time-resolved emission spectroscopy for PICVD fiber preform preparation”, Conf. Proc. OFC ‘85 (San Diego 1985 ) pp. 80–81Google Scholar
  48. 5.48
    H. Bauch, D. Krause, R.Th. Kersten, V. Paquet, G. Weidmann, J. Mentges, G. Janzen, E. Räuchle: “Chemical vapour deposition in microwave produced plasma for fiber preforms”, J. Opt. Commun. 4, 130–135 (1987)Google Scholar
  49. 5.49
    J. Segner: “Plasma impulse chemical vapor deposition”, in Thin Films for Optical Systems, ed. by F.R. Flory (Dekker, New York 1995) Chap. 7, pp. 203–229Google Scholar
  50. 5.50
    J.H. Campbell, J.L. Emmett, R.M. Brusasco, F. Rainer, R.Th. Kersten, V. Paquet, H.W. Etzkorn: “Damage resistant optical coatings prepared using high temperature plasma chemical-vapor-deposition”, Internal LLNL-Techn. Information: Boulder Damage Symposium ‘89, 1–16 (1990)Google Scholar
  51. 5.51
    R.Th. Kersten, J. Otto, V. Paquet: “Thick coatings of doped synthetic silica glass by plasma impulse CVD”, J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 99, 894–902 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 5.52
    Z. Knittl: Optics of Thin Films (Wiley, London 1976) pp. 374 ff.Google Scholar
  53. 5.53
    B.G. Boyard: “Derivation of a matrix describing a rugate dielectric thin film”, Appl. Opt. 27, 1998–2005 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 5.54
    B.G. Boyard: “Rugate filter design: the modified Fourier transform technique”, Appl. Opt. 29, 24–30 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 5.55
    W.H. Southwell: “Spectral response calculations of rugate filters using coupled wave theory”, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 5, 1558–1564 (1988)Google Scholar
  56. 5.56
    W.J. Cunning, R.L. Hall, F.J. Woodberry, W.H. Southwell, N.S. Gluck: “Codeposition of continuous composition rugate filters”, Appl. Opt. 28, 2945–2948 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 5.57
    W.H. Southwell, R.L. Hall: “Rugate filter sidelobe suppression using quintic and rugated quintic matching layers”, Appl. Opt. 28, 2949–2951 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 5.58
    W.H. Southwell: “Using apodization functions to reduce sidelobes in rugate filters”, Appl. Opt. 28, 5091–5094 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 5.59
    M. Ohring: The Materials Science of Thin Films ( Academic Press, London 1992 )Google Scholar
  60. 5.60
    S.K. Deb: “A novel electrophotographic system”, Appl. Opt. Suppl. 3, 192195 (1969)Google Scholar
  61. 5.61
    S.K. Deb: “Optical and photochromic properties and colour centres in thin films of tungsten oxide”, Phil. Mag. 27, 801–823 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 5.62
    F.G.K. Baucke, J.A. Duffy: “Darkening glass by electricity”, Chemistry in Britain 21, 643–646 (1985)Google Scholar
  63. 5.63
    F.G.K. Baucke: “Development of an electrochromic mirror”, in Proc. Conf. Glass, Current Issues, NATO ASI Series, Appl. Sci. Eng. ( Nijhoff, The Hague 1985 ) pp. 506–518Google Scholar
  64. 5.64
    F.G.K. Baucke: “Anorganische Electrochromie and ihre Anwendung zur Herstellung von Schichtsystemen mit variablen optischen Eigenschaften”, DECHEMA Monogr. 102, 483–496 (1986)Google Scholar
  65. 5.65
    F.G.K. Baucke, J.A. Duffy, R.I. Smith: “Optical absorption of tungsten bronze thin films for electrochromic applications”, Thin Solid Films 186, 47–51 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 5.66
    F.G.K. Baucke, J.A. Duffy, P.R. Woodruff: “Optical properties of tungsten bronze surfaces”, Thin Solid Films 148, L59 — L61 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 5.67
    F.G.K. Baucke: “Beat the dazzlers”, Schott Information 1, 11–17 (1983) 5.68 F.G.K. Baucke: “Electrochromic Applications”, Materials Science and Engineering B 10, 285–292 (1991)Google Scholar
  68. 5.68
    F.G.K. Baucke: “Electrochromic Applications”, Materials Science and Engineering B 10, 285–292 (1991)Google Scholar
  69. 5.69
    F.G.K. Baucke: “Electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance”, Solar Energy Mat. 16, 66–77 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 5.70
    F.G.K. Baucke, D. Krause, B. Metz, V. Paquet, J. Zauner: “Elektrochromer Spiegel”, German Patent 3 008 768 (1985)Google Scholar
  71. 5.71
    F.G.K. Baucke, B. Metz, K. Mücke: “Electrochromatic system with third electrode”, US Patent 4,762, 401 (1988)Google Scholar
  72. 5.72
    F.G.K. Baucke, J. Braun: “Verfahren zur Beschickung eines electrochromen Systems mit Wasserstoff”, German Patent 3 736 076 (1991)Google Scholar
  73. 5.73
    F.G.K. Baucke, K. Bange, T. Gambke: “Reflecting electrochromic devices”, Displays, 179–188 (October 1988)Google Scholar
  74. 5.74
    F.G.K. Baucke: “Electrochromic mirrors with variable reflectance”, SPIE 653, 47–54 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 5.
    N.R. Lynam: “Transparent electronic conductors”, in Proc. Symp. on Electrochromic Materials,ed. by M.K. Carpenter, D.A. Corrigan, Vols. 90–2 (Electrochem. Soc., Pennington, NJ 1990) pp. 201–231 and cited reviewsGoogle Scholar
  76. 5.76
    F.G.K. Baucke: “Reflectance control of automotive mirrors”, SPIE Institute Series IS 4, 518–538 (1990)Google Scholar
  77. 5.77
    K. Bange, F.G.K. Baucke, B. Metz: “Properties of electrochromic nickel oxide coatings produced by reactive evaporation”, SPIE 1016, 170–175 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 5.78
    K. Bange, C. Ottermann: “Electrochromic coatings on glasses”, in From Galileo’s “Occhialino” to Optoelectronics, ed. by P. Mazzoldi ( World Scientific, Singapore 1993 ) pp. 14–33Google Scholar
  79. 5.79
    K. Bange, C. Ottermann, W. Wagner, F. Rauch: “Investigation of reflecting electrochromic all-solid state devices by nuclear reaction analysis (NRA)”, SPIE 1272, 122–128 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 5.80
    S.F. Cogan, R.D. Rauh: “The a-WO3/a-IrO2 electrochromic system”, SPIE Institute Series IS 4, 482–493 (1990)Google Scholar
  81. 5.81
    F.G.K. Baucke, B. Metz, J. Zauner: “Elektrochrome Schichtsysteme mit variierbaren optischen Eigenschaften”, Physik in unserer Zeit 18 (1), 21–28 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 5.82
    T. Kamimori, J. Nagai, M. Mizuhashi: “Electrochromic devices for transmissive and reflective light control”, Proc. SPIE 653, 2–9 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 5.83
    H.L. Smith, A.J. Cohen: “Absorption spectra of cations in alkali—silicate glasses of ultra-violet transmission”, Phys. Chem. Glasses 4, 173 (1963)Google Scholar
  84. 5.84
    C.R. Bamford: “The application of the ligand field theory to coloured glass”, Phys. Chem. Glasses 3, 189 (1962)Google Scholar
  85. 5.85
    A. Paul: Chemistry of Glasses ( Chapman and Hall, London 1990 )Google Scholar
  86. 5.86
    G.J. Kakabadse, E. Vassiliou: “The isolation of vanadium oxides in glasses”, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 33 (1965)Google Scholar
  87. 5.87
    G. Lehmann: “Farben von Mineralen und ihre Ursachen”, Fortschritte Miner. 56, 172 (1978)Google Scholar
  88. 5.88
    P. Nath, A. Paul, R.W. Douglas: “Physical and chemical estimation of trivalent and hexavalent chromium in glasses”, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 203 (1965)Google Scholar
  89. 5.89
    A. Bishay, S. Arafa: “A photochemical reaction induced in borate glasses containing arsenic and manganese”, Phys. Chem. Glasses 6, 134 (1965)Google Scholar
  90. 5.90
    H. Scholze: Glas: Natur, Struktur und Eigenschaften (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1988 )Google Scholar
  91. 5.91
    M. Quinten: “Optische Eigenschaften inhomogener Materie am Beispiel aggregierter, kolloidaler Edelmetall-Systeme”, Lecture on March 7, 1990 ( Mainz, Otto-Schott-Forschungszentrum )Google Scholar
  92. 5.92
    C. Wu: “High energy beam colored glasses exhibiting insensitivity to actinic radiation”, US Patent 4,567, 104 (1986)Google Scholar
  93. 5.93
    C. Wu: “High energy beam sensitive glasses”, US Patent 4,670, 366 (1987)Google Scholar
  94. 5.
    J. Matousek: “Diffusion of silver in alkali—calcium—silica glasses”, Silikaty 12 89–95 (1968) original in CzechGoogle Scholar
  95. 5.95
    R.F. Bartholomew: “Water in glass”, in Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 22, ed. by M. Tomozawa, R.H. Doremus ( Academic Press, New York 1982 ) pp. 75–127Google Scholar
  96. 5.96
    H. Frey, G. Kienel (Eds.): Diinnschichttechnologie ( VDI Verlag, Düsseldorf 1987 )Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alfred Thelen
  • Ulrich Jeschkowski
  • Dieter Krause
  • Klaus Bange
  • Friedrich G. K. Baucke
  • Frank-Thomas Lentes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations