The operations of an insurance contract will involve certain expenses, whether undertaken by pension funds or by insurance companies. In the case of a pension fund these expenses are most often lumped together and considered separately from the strictly technical insurance analysis. In the case of insurance companies, on the other hand, the cost element is built into the model, as explicitly and equitably as possible. As we shall see, however, the resulting premiums and reserves are very closely related to the net premiums and reserves we have been discussing so far, and which will therefore continue to hold our primary interest.
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