Commuting and Migrating

  • Tönu Puu
Part of the Advances in Spatial Science book series (ADVSPATIAL)


We have focused on the transportation of commodities. It is now time to turn to the movement of people, i.e. commuting in the short run, and migration in the long run. There have been suggested several appealing models of both.


Transportation Cost Gravity Model Entropy Model Balance Factor Hotelling Model 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Further Reading

  1. H. Hotelling, 1921, A Mathematical Theory of Migration,MA Thesis, University of Washington, reprinted in Environment and Planning A 10:1223–1239 Google Scholar
  2. G. K. Zipf, 1949, Human Behaviour and the Principle of Least Effort, Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass.Google Scholar
  3. A. Wilson, 1970, Entropy in Urban and Regional Modelling, Pion Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. S. Angel and G. M Hyman, 1976, Urban Fields - A Geometry of Movement for regional Science, Pion Ltd., London.Google Scholar
  5. R. Vaughan, 1987, Urban Spatial Traffic Patterns, Pion Ltd., LondonGoogle Scholar
  6. T. Puu, 1979, The Allocation of Road Capital in Two-Dimensional Space, North-Holland, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  7. M. J. Beckmann and T. Puu, 1990, Spatial Structures, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tönu Puu
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of UmeåUmeåSweden

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